Genome Editing Market: Snapshot
Genome editing tools have come a long way from the mid-twentieth century. In 1970s and 1980s, gene targeting was done using largely homologous combination, but was only possible in mice. Since then, the expanding science of genetic analysis and manipulation extended to all types of cells and organisms. Advent of new tools helped scientists achieve targeted DNA double-strand break (DSB) in the chromosome, and is a key pivot on which revenue generation in the genome editing market prospered. New directions for programmable genome editing emerged in the decades of the twenty-first century, expanding the arena.
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Cutting-edge platforms at various points in time continue to enrich genome editing market. Various classes of nucleases emerged, most notable of which is CRISPR-Cas. Research labs around the world have extensively used the platforms in making DSBs at any target of choice. Aside from this, agricultural sciences and medical sectors make substantial use of zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) in genome editing.
Strides made in stem cell therapies, particularly in rectifying an aberrant mutation, have boosted the growth of the genome editing market. Genetic diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sickle cell disease present an incredible revenue prospect in the genome editing market. Ongoing research on novel vectors and non-vector approaches are expected to bolster the outlook of the market.
Genomic editing refers to the strategies and techniques implemented for the modification of target genetic information of any living organism. Genome editing involves gene modification at specific areas through recombinant technology, which increases precision in insertion and decreases cell toxicity. Current advancement in genome editing is based on programmable nucleases. The genome editing market is presently witnessing significant growth due to increase in R&D expenditure, rise in government funding for genomic research, technological advancements, and growth in production of genetically modified crops.
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Companies have made significant investments in R&D in the past few years to develop cutting-edge technologies, such as, CRISPR and TALEN. For instance, Thermo Fisher Scientific is investing significantly in the development of its CRISPR technology for providing better efficiency and accuracy in research and also to fulfil the unmet demands in research and therapeutics. Cas9 protein and FokI protein have been combined to form a dimeric CRISPR/Cas9 RNA-guided FokI nucleases system, which is expected to have wide range of genome editing applications.
The genome editing market is growing rapidly due to its application in a large number of areas, such as mutation, therapeutics, and agriculture biotechnology. Genome editing techniques offer large opportunities in crop improvement. However, the real potential of homologous recombination for crop improvement in targeted gene replacement therapy is yet to be realized. Homologous recombination is expected to be used as an effective methodology for crop improvement, which is not possible through transgene addition.
Rise in the number of diseases and applications is likely to expand the scope of genome editing in the near future. It includes understanding the role of specific genes and processes of organ specific stem cells, such as, neural stem cells and spermatogonial stem cells. Genome editing has a significant scope to treat genetically affected cells, variety of cancers, and agents of infectious diseases such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, etc. However, genetic alteration of human germline for medicinal purpose has been debated for years. Ethical issues, comprising concern for animal welfare, can arise at all stages of generation and life span of genetically engineered animal.
The global genome editing market can be segmented based on technology, application, end-user, and geography. In terms of technology, the genome editing market can be categorized into CRISPR, TALEN, ZFN, and other technologies. Bioinformatics has eased the process of data analysis through various technological applications. On the basis of application, the global genome editing market can be classified cell-line engineering, animal genome engineering, plant genome engineering, and others. Based on end-user, the genome editing market can be segmented into pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies and academic and clinical research organizations.
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In terms of region, the global genome editing market can be segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is projected to continue its dominance in the global genome editing market owing to high government funding for research on genetic modification in the region. Asia Pacific is a rapidly growing genome editing market due to rise in investments by key players in the region. Rise in drug discovery and development activities, coupled with increasing government initiatives toward funding small and start-up companies in the biotechnology and life sciences industry, is a major factor expected to drive the genome editing market in North America during the forecast period. Players should invest in the emerging economies and the countries of Asia-Pacific like China, South Korea, Australia, India and Singapore in which the genome editing market is expected to grow at rapid pace in future, due to growing funding in research.
Key players operating in the global genome editing market are CRISPR Therapeutics, Thermo Fisher Scientific, GenScript Corporation, Merck KgaA, Sangamo Therapeutics, Inc., Horizon Discovery Group, Integrated DNA Technologies, New England Biolabs, OriGene Technologies, Lonza Group, and Editas Medicine.
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