Patient derived xenografts (PDX) are tumour in mouse models for cancer. The cells or tissues of patient’s tumour are implanted into mice for research purpose. Before checking on to the patient, cancer drugs can be tested on xenografts to check their performance. It can help in planning the treatment as per the previous tests and also development of new drugs if needed. There are athymic nude mice, severely compromised immune deficient mice, NOD-SCID mice and recombination activity gene 2 knockout mice for establishing PDX models. Growing research and development sector for cancer research and demand for humanised PDX models may provide opportunity for growth.
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Rapidly evolving field of personalised therapy can be the future oncological practice leading to the introduction of novel trial design in bio market therapy. Patient derived xenografts have been in high demand in translational research and cell line xenografts have been the standard for preclinical research which is able to create a microenvironment. PDX models are capable of accurately replicating tumour growth, diversity of tumour cells, and also ensures tumour progression including metastatic potential. In the research, PDX models were established of 4 of 9 of patients at diagnosis and all patients were tested at relapse. The results demonstrated that PDX can be established quickly and found to be equally as representative of the donor tumour.
PDX Models for Drug Testing in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
According to the research article published in doi.org, PDXs recapitulate the heterogeneity observed in the human tumours making them an ideal preclinical model system. PDX protocol determines the steps required for the generation of HNSCC-PDXs, the processing of tumour tissues and the expansion of PDX models into cohorts for drug testing. The bulk single cell suspensions of PDX are required for creating larger mouse cohorts. Access can be generated as a tumour response to candidate drugs.
PDX as an Innovative Surrogate Tumour Model for Investigation of Health Disparities in Triple Negative Breast Cancer
Utilisation of PDX models i9n preclinical studies has helped in the improvement of basic and clinical study outcomes in a variety of solid cancer types, including breast cancer. PDX models are extensively used in cancer research. These models facilitate direct translation of laboratory discoveries and findings to clinical practice. PDX models allow for testing of drugs or drug combinations before testing in actual patients. During the study of malignancies exhibiting a complex tumour heterogeneity, PDX models are very important and also PDX models helps in better understanding of TNBC biologic properties.
Lack in Accuracy and other Challenges may Lead to Restrain the Growth
In PDX research area, there is a lack of standardisation as the technique is relatively new. The lack of competent immune system in normal PDTX mice implies to these models not being accurately representing the disease progression. Moreover, it makes them less suitable for immunotherapeutic cancer vaccine research. PDTX models are not accurate for early tumourigenesis including the genetic events leading to tumour formation. Every time researchers need to start from the scratch to avoid using tumours already acquiring mutations. Additionally, it is very expensive to implant and grow patient’s tumour in several immune compromised models.
Prominent players in the sector include WuXi AppTec (China), Champions Oncology, Inc. (US), Pharmatest Services (Finland), Xentech (France), JSR Corporation (Japan), The Jackson Laboratory (US), Oncodesign (France), Explora Biolabs (US), Biocytogen (US), Shanghai w.e.f., (US), Certis Oncology Solutions (US), InnoSer (Netherlands), Aragen Life Sciences w.e.f. (US), Bioduro (US), Living Tumor Laboratory (Canada), Hera BioLabs (US), Abnova Corporation (Taiwan), Beijing IDMO Co. Ltd. (China), Shanghai ChemPartner Co., Ltd. (China), etc.
MacroGenics announced publication in molecular cancer therapeutics highlighting the development of MGC018, the investigational antibody drug conjugate targeting B7-H3 for the treatment of solid tumours. B7-H3 is a cell surface protein with limited expression on normal tissues but is over expressed on the epithelium and tumour associated vasculature in solid tumours. The manuscript reports that overexpression of this molecule has been shown to be associated with cancer disease severity, risk of recurrence and reduction in survival. MGc018 is comprised of an anti B7-H3 humanised lgG1 antibody conjugated via a cleavable linker to the pro-drug seco-DUocarmycin hydroxyBenzamide Azaindole.
In January 2021, Rvyu Therapeutics announced the expansion of their phase I study of SEL120 in patients with acute Myeloid Leukemia or high risk myelodysplastic syndrome to Poland. SEL 120 is a highly selective first in class CDK8/CDK19 inhibitor demonstrating efficacy in a number of solid tumour types in in vitro and in vivo models as well as in onco-hematological malignancies. SEL120 is effective in undifferentiated AML STAT5-positive cancers.
Apollomics, Inc. in May 2020 announced initiation of SPARTA Phase 2 Clinical Trial for c-MET Inhibitor APL-101. The APL-101 Phase ½ clinical trials is an international multicentre, open label study which evaluates the safety, pharmacokinetics, and also efficacy levels of APL-101. SPARTA evaluates non-small cell lung cancer activities with a mutation leading to MET exon 14 skipping, and also across tumour types with MET amplification or fusions.
North America is projected to gain the leading share for the PDX market owing to rising incidences of cancer in the region. In 2020, prostate, lung and colorectal cancer accounted for 43% out of total in men and women accounted for 50% of cases of breast, lung and colorectal cancer. Based on 2017 cases, the rate of new cases of cancer is 442.4 per 100,000 people. As per cancer.gov, by 2040 the number of cases are expected to rise to 29.5 million and death may grow up to 16.4 million due to different types of cancer. Thus, to minimise the number, there is a need of research and therefore, it may be the driving factor for PDX market growth.
Regarding cancer prevalence, India accounts for 50% of total cases globally and deaths caused by cancer are expected to rise by 36% by 2030. Liver and stomach cancer are more prevalent in Asia Pacific. China is one of the leading nations accounting for 24% of diagnosed cases and 30% of deaths worldwide in 2020. Lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver, gastrointestinal, etc. contribute to the most prevalent cases of cancer in China.
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Europe accounts for second populated region for colorectal cancer. As per ESMO, Cancer affects men slightly more as compared to women with 54% of new cases. Among females breast cancer is the most common and prevalent accounting for approximately 355,000 women in European Union followed by colorectal, prostate and lung cancer. Also growing research activities in the field of oncology may strive for better opportunities for market during the forecast period.
By Tumour Type
- Gynecological Tumour Models
- Hematological Tumour Models
- Respiratory Tumour Models
- Urological Tumour Models
- Gastrointestinal Tumour Models
- Mice Models
- Rat Models
- Basic Cancer Research
- Preclinical Drug Development
- Biomarker Analysis
By End User
- Research and Development Organisations
- Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology companies
- Academic and Research Institutions
- North America
- Asia Pacific
- Latin America
- Middle East and Africa
Key Questions Answered
- What are the key marketing trends driving the growth of market?Research activities in various types of cancer cells, rising incidences of cancer diseases, etc.
- Which model is projected to dominate the sector during the forecast period?The mice model due to factors such as capability in procurement, manipulation, and also as it requires minimum facility.
- Who are the leading players responsible for the market growth? Champions Oncology, Inc. (US), Pharmatest Services (Finland), Xentech (France), JSR Corporation (Japan), The Jackson Laboratory (US), Oncodesign (France), Explora Biolabs (US), etc.
- Which region is expected to hold the leading share during the forecast period?North America.
- What re the applications of PDX?Basic Cancer Research, Preclinical Drug Development, Biomarker Analysis, etc.
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