Brain is one of the largest and most complex organs in the human body. It comprises 100 billion nerves that communicate with a 100 trillion synapses. It is made up of hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. It is responsible for thought and movement produced by the body. The brain has its own security system-a filtering mechanism comprising blood vessels that allow entry of essential nutrients while blocking other substances-known as the blood-brain barrier. Blood-brain barrier is a semi permeable dynamic interface that separates the capillaries that carry blood to the brain and spinal cord tissue by blocking the passage of certain substances. It is formed by highly specialized endothelial cells. The vessels of the blood-brain barrier are composed of specialized endothelial cell that line brain capillaries from the vascular system that lack fenestration of pores and allow rapid exchange of molecules between vessels and tissues.
The blood-brain barrier protects the neural tissue from harmful chemicals and maintains a stable environment. Unfortunately, this barrier is so effective at blocking the passage of foreign substances that it often prevents penetration of life-saving drugs to address issues such as injuries and diseases. Thus, discovery of new modalities allowing the effective delivery of drugs and bio-macromolecules to the central nervous system (CNS) is of great importance for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation are key events in CNS disorders like stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the drugs for CNS treatment, such as neurotrophic factors, including BDNF, EPO (erythropoietin), and anti-inflammatory antibodies (e.g., Enbrel and Remicade), do not cross the blood-brain barrier in effective therapeutic quantities.
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North America dominates the global market for blood-brain barrier technologies given the rising incidence of neurological diseases and growing geriatric population in the region. Asia is expected to show high growth rates in the next five years in the global blood-brain barrier technologies market, with China and India being the fastest growing markets in Asia Pacific. The key driving forces for the blood-brain barrier technologies market in developing countries are the large pool of patients, increasing awareness about the disease, improving healthcare infrastructure, and rising government funding in the region.
Increasing prevalence of neurological diseases such as meningitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and encephalitis, growing geriatric population, increasing in healthcare expenditure, rising investment in research and development for the development of new drugs and delivery devices, increasing awareness about healthcare, and increasing number of initiatives by various governments and government associations are some of the key factors driving the growth of the global blood-brain barrier technologies market. However, complex regulatory frameworks for the approval of drugs in most countries and long approval time for drugs owing to the insufficient knowledge of the brain are major restraints for the growth of the global blood-brain barrier technologies market.
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Innovation of drugs and delivery devices to cross the blood-brain barrier would help develop opportunities for the global blood-brain barrier technologies market. The major companies operating in the global blood-brain barrier technologies market are
- Teva Pharmaceuticals Industries
- Hoffmann La-Roche
- Eli Lilly and Company
- Fabre-Kramer Pharmaceuticals
- Bristol-Myers Squibb Company
- biOasia Technologies
- Cypress Biosciences
- Janssen Pharmaceutical N.V.