The treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach encompassing surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination cytotoxic chemotherapy or targeted agents; although chemotherapy treatment has good response rates complete responses are rarely seen. During the last decade the field of immuno-oncology has rapidly advanced and a number of agents which modulate the immune system are beginning to emerge and change treatment paradigms. Two of the most prominent and promising class of drugs are the immune checkpoint inhibitors, that target the proteins found on T-lymphocytes or T cells such as programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) pathways.
The immune checkpoint inhibitors are causing a stir amongst oncologist as they have been shown to be effective in the treatment of a variety of cancers, enhancing the immune response to detect and target cancer cells with a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional chemotherapy and providing durable responses, lasting for many years. Five checkpoint inhibitors have received rapid approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for cancer, including the PD-1 inhibitors Keytruda (pembrolizumab), and Opdivo (nivolumab), the PD-L1 inhibitors Tecentriq (atezoliumab), Bavencio (avelumab) and Imfinzi (durvalumab) and the CTLA-4 inhibitor Yervoy (ipilimumab). In 2011, Bristol Myers Squibb’s Yervoy a CTLA-4 inhibitor became one of the first checkpoint inhibitor to be approved in the treatment of metastatic melanoma, despite considerable safety and tolerability concerns. It took a further 3 years before the next checkpoint inhibitor Keytruda, a PD-1 inhibitor was approved for the treatment of advanced unresectable melanoma.
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Since 2013, over REDACTED has been invested by pharma companies in acquisitions, equity offerings and venture capital and a further REDACTED has been transacted in the establishment of strategic partnerships associated with the development of checkpoint inhibitors. According to clincailtrial.org there are more than 230 clinical trials underway evaluating checkpoint inhibitors either as a monotherapy or in combination with chemotherapy or targeted therapies these encompass a wide variety of caner sub-types: including 117 Phase 1 trials, 112 Phase 2 trial and 9 Phase 3 studies. Several novel agents are in early stage clinical development that target novel pathways including the T cell immunoglobulin and mucin containing protein 3 (TIM-3) and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) protein inhibitors, CD-47/signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) and immunometabolic enzymes Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) which utilize an array of innovative delivery technologies such as small molecule agents, monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies and fusion proteins to target inhibit checkpoint proteins.
In 2017, checkpoint inhibitors generated sales of nearly REDACTED and by 2023 we forecast these agents will garner over REDACTED in revenues as marketed therapies gain regulatory approval in new indications and territories. In addition, novel classes if checkpoint inhibitors will enter the market, companies will identify clinically effective combinations and validate biomarkers and signatures that will enable them to help identify patients that are most likely to benefit from treatment. Personalized precision medicine will be a major driver for pharma to effectively deliver these innovative medicines and ensure they are accessible and available at sustainable prices to all those in need.
This report on checkpoint inhibitors provides a detailed analysis of the market based on approved clinical and preclinical developmental candidates that target PD-1/PD-L1, CTLA-4, IDO-1, LAG-3, TIM-3 and CD47/SIRPα. The report analyzes the market trends, key medical needs and provides insights into recent advances in the modulation of checkpoint inhibition in the treatment of cancer through the development of fully human monoclonal antibodies, bispecific antibodies, fusion proteins and Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T cells.
– 21 data tables and 43 additional tables
– An overview of the global market for checkpoint inhibitors
– Analyses of global market trends, with data from 2017 to 2018, and projections of compound annual growth rates (CAGRs) through 2023
– Discussion of the market landscape and innovative strategies, and the areas of unmet medical needs
– Information on the biomarker development, immune modulation, innovative delivery technologies, and the future landscape
– Market analysis for CP inhibitors, including PD-1/PD-L1 agents, CTLA-4 agents, TIM-3 agents, LAG-3 agents, IDO-1 agents, and SIRPα agents
– Comprehensive company profiles of major players in the industry, including
Crescendo Biologics Ltd.
Forty Seven, Inc.
Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Seattle Genetics, Inc.
Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc.
Shanghai Cell Therapy
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