During the past few years, the global burden of pediatric HIV infection is becoming a challenge for the healthcare industry. According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that around 3.2 million people were living with HIV infection at the end of 2013. Majority of children acquire HIV infection from their HIV-infected mothers during pregnancy, breastfeeding or birth. Effective treatments can reduce the risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, in most of the resource-limited countries where the burden of HIV is high, the treatment for pediatric HIV infection is still not widely available. Pediatric HIV infection causes immunologic deterioration, opportunistic infections, and cancers. Diagnosis of pediatric HIV infection includes viral antibodies and virologic nucleic acid amplification tests. Viral antibodies are given to children above 18 months whereas virologic nucleic acid amplification tests (such as PCR) are performed in children less than 18 months. Combination of antiretroviral drugs is given for the treatment of pediatric HIV infection. The general pathophysiology of pediatric HIV infection is similar to that in adults however, the clinical presentations, the method of infection and treatments often differ.
Worldwide, each year, about 150,000 more children are infected (7 to 10% of all new infections) with HIV infection, and about 110,000 children die. Some of the risk factors related to the vertical transmission of HIV infection in children include high plasma viral RNA concentrations, seroconversion during pregnancy or breastfeeding, advanced maternal disease, and low maternal peripheral CD4+ T-cell counts. The most common signs of pediatric HIV infection not receiving ART include generalized lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, oral candidiasis, hepatomegaly, CNS disease, failure to thrive, recurrent bacteremia, lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis, hepatitis, nephropathy, and others.
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The market for pediatric HIV infection treatment is primarily driven by increasing prevalence of HIV infection in children. Active involvement of national and international government bodies to promote the research on HIV infection treatment drugs is responsible to drive the growth of the market during the forecast period. Moreover, increasing private-public partnerships for the research and development activities and increasing healthcare expenditure are also some of the factors driving the growth of the pediatric HIV infection treatment market. However, unavailability of treatment options in the underdeveloped countries can be the factor which can hamper the growth of global pediatric HIV infection treatment market. Moreover, the limited number of treatment options with a very high cost of branded drugs in various regions have impeded the growth of the global pediatric HIV infection treatment market.
On the basis of geography, global pediatric HIV infection treatment market is segmented into six key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific excluding China, China and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to witness faster revenue growth in comparison with markets in other regions owing to higher infection rate amongst children and a large number of pediatric population suffering from HIV infection. Asia Pacific is also one of the fast growing regions in the global pediatric HIV infection treatment market due to high involvement of government-non-government bodies in promoting HIV infection treatment campaigns. Moreover, the Middle East and Africa and Latin America are expected to show less growth in the global pediatric HIV infection treatment market due to delayed introduction of treatment therapies in the regions.
Examples of some of the key players present in the global pediatric HIV infection treatment market are GlaxoSmithKline plc., F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, ViiV Healthcare, Camber Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Apotex Inc., and others.