Pneumoperitoneum is referred as abnormal gas within the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneum is a complex, large serous membrane which forms closed sac in abdominal cavity. The pneumoperitoneum is often an indication of illness. It is necessary to be diagnosed correctly because errors in diagnosis can lead to various pseudopneumoperitoneum. Perforated abdominal viscus is the most common cause of pneumoperitoneum. The causes of pneumoperitoneum differ from children to adults. The common cause of pneumoperitoneum in adults are peptic ulcer disease, ischemic bowel, bowel obstruction, malignancy, necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. megacolon), appendicitis, diverticulitis, peritoneal dialysis, mechanical perforation such as colonoscopy, trauma, iatrogenic, etc.
In females, it is also caused by vaginal aspiration, insufflation, douching, sudden squatting, postpartum exercises, and etc. The causes of pneumoperitoneum in children are perforation and iatrogenic effect. Perforated hollow viscus includes the most common cause i.e., necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and others such as Hirschsprung disease, peptic ulcer disease, intestinal atresia or web, meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis, etc. The iatrogenic effect consists of rectal thermometer, enema, post intubation or mechanical ventilation.
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The common symptoms of pneumoperitoneum are abdominal pain, vomiting, constipation, fever, hypotension, tachypnea, and diarrhea. Different signs of pneumoperitoneum are cupola/saddlebag/mustache sign, lucent liver sign, football sign, Silver’s sign/falciform ligament sign, inverted V sign, telltale triangle sign, urachus sign, Rigler’s sign, and others. Pneumoperitoneum is usually detected by radiography. An erect chest X-ray and supine abdominal X-ray are used to detect pneumoperitoneum. The erect chest X-ray is the most sensitive plain radiograph for pneumoperitoneum detection and there are several signs that may be used for detecting free gas in abdominal X-ray.
The pneumoperitoneum market has been divided based on detection type, end-user, and region. In terms of detection type, the market has been segmented into erect chest X-ray (plain radiograph) and supine abdominal X-ray (abdominal radiograph). The erect chest x-ray is the most sensitive X-ray for detection of free intraperitoneal gas. The signs of gas such as subdiaphragmatic free gas, and cupola sign can be detected with this method. Abdominal X-ray (radiograph) can detect various pneumoperitoneum signs. Bowel related signs (Rigler’s sign, telltale triangle sign) where the air outlining on both sides of bowel wall, peritoneal ligament related signs (football sign, urachus sign, and others), and right upper quadrant signs (Morison’s pouch sign, lucent liver sign, etc.) can be detected through abdominal X-ray (radiograph). Usage of specific detection techniques is likely to boost the growth the market in the near future. Rising gastric and abdominal diseases are also driving the global market.
Based on end-user, the pneumoperitoneum market has been segmented into hospitals, ambulatory surgical centers, diagnostic centers, and others. Hospitals hold the major share of the pneumoperitoneum market, because of rising incidence of abdominal problems such as inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. megacolon), and mechanical perforation such as colonoscopy, trauma, and iatrogenic effect. Preference for diagnostic centers for radiography imaging is also expected to increase in the near future.
In terms of region, the global pneumoperitoneum market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Rest of the world. North America accounted for the largest share of the pneumoperitoneum market due to high health care awareness, prevalence of abdominal disorders, and technological advancements in the region. Europe held the second largest share attributed to increasing geriatric population. However, countries in Asia are expected to be the fastest growing markets due to growing awareness, gradual adoption of improved technologies, emerging health care infrastructure, increased purchasing power of hospitals, and rising population.
Key players in the pneumoperitoneum market are Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, GE Healthcare, Hologic, Inc., and Philips Healthcare, among others. Regional players are also contributing significantly to the growth of the pneumoperitoneum market.
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