Heart failure occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s demand. This can be chronic, taking place slowly over time, or acute, occurring suddenly. Acute heart failure is defined as the rapid development of or change in symptoms pointing to heart failure requiring urgent medical attention and usually hospitalization. It is a physiological condition which adversely impacts the pumping efficiency of the cardiac muscles.
Fluid accumulates around the heart and the ventricles fail to pump sufficient blood to all the organs. This eventually leads to deposition of the fluid in the lungs, abdomen, liver, and lower body. According to epidemiologic statistics by Novartis Pharmaceuticals, about 62 million adults worldwide died of heart failure in 2015 and this number is expected to rise. One person in five at the age of 40 runs the risk of developing heart failure, with over 1 million hospitalizations reported annually in Europe are accounted for by heart failure.
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The increasing prevalence of diseases and unmet medical needs have created additional scope for the acute heart failure market. Drivers of this market include poor diet, lack of exercise, changing lifestyles, increasing stress, unhealthy weights, and rising levels of smoking & alcohol consumption. The incidence of one or more diseases such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, coronary artery diseases, sleep apnea, heart defects, irregular heartbeats, and kidney problems has a synergistic effect on the prevalence of acute heart failure, further contributing to the market.
The acute heart failure market can be segmented by type of treatment into the following categories: surgery, medicines, and medical devices. Common types of surgery include heart valve replacement, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, and heart transplant. Classes of drugs used in the management of acute heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, digoxin, diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, nitrates, inotropic agents, and anticoagulants.
ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, and diuretics are major contributors to the acute heart failure market. Cardiorentis’ ularitide and Novartis’ serelaxin represent new treatment options for acute heart failure. Both are recombinant forms of human proteins intended to be used in addition to intravenous administered loop diuretics which are the current standard-of-care for acute heart failure.
Implantable left ventricular assist devices (LVAD), biventricular pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), and heart pumps are the medical devices used in acute heart failure. Unmet medical needs such as safe & effective therapy and the increasing number of acute heart failure patients boost the demand for these devices. However, stringent regulatory requirements and the high cost of these devices negatively impact the market.
Geographically, the acute heart failure market is distributed over North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. Among these, North America and Europe dominate the market. The prevalence of heart diseases is high in Eastern Europe and is increasing in parts of Asia and South America owing to the growing incidence of cardiac disorders, aging population, lack of exercise, diet-containing high fat & salt content, stress, and smoking. In Asia Pacific, China, Japan, Malaysia, and India constitute major shares in the acute heart failure market on account of the growing financial potential of individuals.
Key players in this market include Pfizer, GlaxoSmithKline plc. Novartis International AG, Biovail, Bristol Mayers Squibb Company, MSD, AstraZenica, Abiomed Inc., Symplmed, Berlin Heart GmbH, Biotronik SE & Co. KG, Boston Scientific Corp., HeartWare International Inc., Jarvik Heart Inc., LivaNova PLC, Medtronic plc, ReliantHeart Inc., St. Jude Medical Inc., and Cardiokinetix.
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