Urothelial carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm resulting from transitional epithelium, occurring mainly in the urinary bladder, renal pelves or ureters; frequently papillary. These carcinomas are classified according to the degree of anaplasia. Urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is a type of cancer that normally occurs in the urinary system: urinary bladder, kidney and accessory organs. It is the most common type of bladder, ureter, urethra, and urachus cancer. Urothelial cell carcinoma is also known as transitional cell carcinoma.
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Bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common tumor of the entire urinary system and TCC is the most common primary neoplasm of the urinary bladder. Cancer of the ureter may not have symptoms in the early stages of the disease. However, symptoms may appear as the cancer grows. These include: persistent back pain, blood in the urine, painful or frequent urination, fatigue unexplained weight loss. These symptoms are associated with malignant cancer of the ureter and other health conditions.
The treatment of Urothelial carcinoma involves surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The tests to diagnose Urothelial carcinoma includes Urine tests, Ureteroscopy, Intravenous pyelogram (IVP), Retrograde pyelography, CT scan, MRI scan and Chest X-ray. While the treatment with surgery include open surgery, laparoscopic surgery and percutaneous endoscopic surgery. Chemotherapy treatment usually involves the treatment with a combination of drugs. The combinations includes: gemcitabine and cisplatin, gemcitabine and carboplatin as well as methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Radiotherapy is not frequently used for transitional cell carcinoma of the kidney or ureter. Patient may have radiotherapy to the area of the ureter or kidney if patients are not fit enough to have an operation or cancer has spread into surrounding tissue.
The Urothelial carcinoma market has been segmented by type of drugs, by end-user and by geography. The type of drugs sub-segmented as targeted and chemotherapy. The drugs like Levatinib, Atezolizumab, Nivelumab, Enzalutamide, Abiraterone acetate, Cabazitaxel, sipuleucel-T, everolimus, bevacizumab and pazopanib are used in treatment of Urothelial carcinoma. The end-users for the Urothelial carcinoma market include Hospitals, Specialty Clinics, Cancer Research Institutes and Ambulatory Surgical Centers.
Belgium holds the top rank in incidences of bladder cancer, which is followed by Lebanon and Malta. Bladder cancer cases occur in more developed countries, notably around 59%. The regions like Northern America and Europe having highest incidence of bladder cancer; and Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean having the lowest incidence. Transitional cell cancer develops in the part of the kidney called the renal pelvis. Transitional cell cancers are rare and only about 7 out of 100 kidney cancers (7%) diagnosed in the UK. The most common type of kidney cancer is renal cell cancer.
Transitional cell cancer of the ureter is even more infrequent than transitional cell cancer of the kidney. TCC of the kidney is 4 times more common than cancer of the ureter. The most common type of bladder cancer is transitional cell cancers of the bladder. According to the estimation of American Cancer Society for bladder cancer, in 2016 there would be about 76,960 new cases of bladder cancer, and about 16,390 deaths from bladder cancer alone in the United States. In recent years the rates of cancer deaths and new bladder cancers have been dropping slightly in women. Incidence rates have been decreasing and death rates have been stable in men. About 5% of all newly diagnosed cancers in the US are Bladder cancers. It is the fourth most frequent cancer in men, but it is not common in women.
The major players operating in Urothelial carcinoma market include Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Genentech, Novartis, Dendreon, Sanofi Aventis, Bristol-Myers Squibb and Eisai are among other significant players worldwide.
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