Haemophilus is a group of bacteria that causes different types of illness such as breathing, bone and joint disorders and nervous system disorders. Among all the strains of Haemophilus, H infleunzae type b (Hib) is one of the most common types of infecton causing bacteria. The bacteria is also known as Bacillus Influenzae of Pfeiffer’s bacillus and it is a gram negative, facultatively, ccobacillary, anaerobic bacteria. This strain of bacterium belongs to the Pasteurellaceae family and was first isolated in 1892 during influenza pandemic. Some strains of the H. infleunzae posses a capsule of polysaccharide and on the basis of different biochemical properties of capsule these strains are classified into 6 different subtypes. Among all the strains of Haemophilus, H infleunzae type b (Hib) is the most virulent strain that is responsible for invasive infections. However, there are some strains of Haemophilus that have no capsule and can be termed as non encapsulated or nontypeable H.infleunzae. This strain of bacteria accounts for more than 95% of the infections occurring due to Haemophilus influenza in adults and children. H. infleunzae is also responsible for wide range of invasive and localized infections which can range from mild ear infection to other sever infections like blood stream infections. This strain can cause cellulitis, meningitis, epiglottis, urinary tract infections, septic arthritis, cervical adenitis, endocartis, osteomyelitis and glossitis. Infection caused by non encapsulated H.infleunzae strain includes sinusitis, pneumonia, bronchitis, otitis media and mucosal infections.
Hib is a communicable disease and is spread through saliva or mucus. Most of the infections are found to communicate through sneezing or coughing. Thus, for the prevention of influenza infection, vaccination is one of the most common modes of treatment recommended. Thus, children under age of 5 are the most common victim for influenza who haven’t been vaccinated before. According to the WHO in 2000, Hib infections were responsible for cause of approximately 3 million cases of serious infections such as meningitis and pneumonia across the globe. Likewise, the infection also caused 386,000 deaths in young children worldwide. Thus, routine immunization against Haemophilus infection is used in over 100 countries. Additionally, diagnostic tests such as bacterial gram staining, blood cell counts, cerebrospinal fluid studies and others are the major laboratory testing studies performed. Similarly, computed tomography, chest radiography, echocardiography and lateral neck radiography are some of the imaging studies performed to confirm the infection. However, immunization or vaccination remains the major treatment for the prevention of Hib infections. Thus, most of the companies have their drug candidates in the pipeline and are expected to launch in the future.
Rising incidences of Haemophilus Influenzae infection is one of the major causes for the growth of this market. In Japan every year more than 450 children, under the age of 5 years are affected by Hib meningitis. Similarly in the United States the overall incidence of Hib meningitis in children aged 0 years to 4 years 40 to 50 per 10,000. Thus, overall increasing incidences of Haemophilus influezae infection is luring many manufacturers to enter in this market. For, instance HibTITER a first conjugate vaccine proved to be successful in reducing the incidences of H.influenzae. Currently, Nuron Biotech has entered into partnership with Mitsubishi Corporation for the development of single antigen and conjugate vaccine against Hib infection for the Japanese market.
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Takeda Pharmaceuticals, GlaxoSmith Kline Plc, Sanofi, Inc., Novartis AG, Biological E. Limited, Panacea Biotech Limited, Zydus Cadila Healthcare Limited, Nuron Biotech, Inc., Sinovac Biotech Limited and others are some of the major players operating in this segment.
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