Hemostasis is a medical condition, wherein blood vessel, platelets, and coagulation factors act together to arrest bleeding. It occurs by coagulation process, wherein blood is transformed from liquid to gel state through sequential enzymatic steps. During hemostasis process, thrombin plays a role of key enzyme. Thrombin is an enzyme called serine protease, which is synthesized from a precursor glycoprotein called prothrombin. During the clotting process, proteolytic cleavage of prothrombin produces thrombin. Insoluble fibrin is produced from soluble fibrinogen through a series of reactions catalyzed by thrombin. The production of thrombin in body is highly regulated, as the overproduction of thrombin may result in the blockage of normal blood flow– a state called thrombosis. Under such condition, tissues may die due to unavailability of oxygen.
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Prothrombin is produced in liver and is passed into blood stream in an inactive form. Whenever a vascular injury occurs, collagen and tissue factor lead to activation of coagulation pathways. These pathways lead to activation of factor X, which, in conjugation with other factors, forms a complex. This complex cleaves the prothrombin protein into a thrombin molecule. Once thrombin is produced, it cleaves fibrinogen into fibrin. This result in platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, which help in the stoppage of bleeding.
Thrombin acts on different cell types. On smooth muscle cells, it causes vasoconstriction. It activates platelets to promote their aggregation at the site of injury. In activated state, thrombin plays a role of chemo-attractant and mitogen for neutrophils and fibroblasts. Thrombin also plays a role in regulating the endothelial cell functions. It also plays a role in the anticoagulant system, wherein it activates protein C upon interaction with thrombomodulin. This helps in improving circulation as an anticoagulant effect during the vascular injury. Thrombin are produced naturally in body and is also available in commercialized forms.
In both the forms, it has two important functions. It helps in the process of coagulation wherein fibrinogen is converted into fibrin. This promotes platelet aggregation, which helps in clotting of blood at the site of injury. Secondly, it acts in the anticoagulation process by activating the protein C. Commercially produced thrombin is available in concentrated form, which, upon application, is capable of converting fibrinogen into fibrin. This helps in thrombus formation at the site of injury. The concentration of thrombin is directly promotional to the rate of clot formation. Types of commercially available thrombin differ in terms of dosage form and concentration. This factor is considered while selecting the product, as higher concentration speeds up the process of hemostasis.
The global thrombin market can be segmented on the basis of product type, dosage form, end-user, and geographical region. Based on product type, the market has been segmented into bovine thrombin, human thrombin, and recombinant thrombin. The human thrombin segment is sub-segmented into alpha, beta, and gamma thrombin. The use of bovine thrombin generates antibodies, which cross-react with human coagulation proteins. This has been observed to result in severe complications and life-threatening bleeding. Hence, human thrombin was introduced, as an alternative to bovine thrombin. However, human thrombin is associated with the risk of transmission of viruses. The recombinant thrombin segment is anticipated to lead the market, as recombinant thrombin is free of risks associated with viral infection and it has potential efficacy.
Based on dosage form, the global thrombin market has been segmented into powder form, solution form, pad form, spray kits, and others. Based on end-user, it can be segmented into hospitals, diagnostics & clinics, and academic and research institutes. The hospitals segment is anticipated to lead the market, due to increase in the number of surgeries.
Based on geography, the global thrombin market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America is anticipated to lead the global market, due to increase in the number of surgeries and developed health care infrastructure.
Key players operating in the global thrombin market are Baxter, Bayer, CSL, Grifols, GE Healthcare, Hualan Biological, Haematologic Technologies Inc., Pfizer, Octapharma, Omrix Biopharmaceuticals Ltd., and Shanghai RAAS.
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