According to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is considered to be an AIDS-defining disease, indicating that patients with KS go on to develop AIDS. The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma was reportedly high in homosexual men with HIV.
The market for Kaposi sarcoma is characterized by the increasing number of domestic players playing an important role in their respective regional markets. Given the patent expiry of most drugs in the KS market, there is immense scope for players of generic as well as branded drugs to establish a strong foothold in the coming years. The global Kaposi sarcoma market is projected to rise from US$118.5 mn in 2015 to reach US$143.2 mn in 2024 at a modest CAGR of 2.2% from 2016 to 2024.
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Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are the key treatment methods for Kaposi sarcoma. In 2015, HAART therapy emerged as the leading segment owing to the high incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma globally. HAART therapy includes the combination of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors, fusion inhibitors, and protease inhibitors.
Chemotherapy is likely to grow at the fastest pace during the forecast period from 2016 to 2024 due to the high cost of the treatment and the increasing adoption by immunocompetent patients. The leading chemotherapy drugs include paclitaxel, docetaxel, liposomal doxorubicin and daunorubicin, bleomicin, and vincristine.
Immunotherapy consists of interferon alfa, which is the first biological drug approved by the US FDA to for the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma. Patients with good immune functions show effectiveness; however, immunocompromised patients rarely respond to this therapy. Hence, it therapy accounted for the least share in the global market. The high cost of the therapy is a deterrent to patients in developing regions such as Asia Pacific and the Middle East and Africa and this limits its adoption. A limited number of approved biologics is also a prominent factor restraining the growth of the immunotherapy segment.
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Geographically, the Kaposi sarcoma market has been segmented into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and the Middle East and Africa.
North America contributed to the major share in the Kaposi sarcoma market in 2015 due to the presence of key market players and the increasing cost of drugs. The growth of the market is also driven by the easy availability of drugs and a high diagnosis rate of the malignancy. The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in the region is comparatively low and less than 10% of the population is considered to be affected by the cancer. According to Globocan, the incidence of KS in the U.S. was 0.1% of the total cancer incidence in 2012. However, North America has been witnessing a shortage in the drug supply needed for the treatment of KS, leading to a widening demand-supply gap. This is predicted to have a negative impact on the market.
The Middle East and Africa is expected to expand at the highest CAGR during the forecast period owing to the high incidence and prevalence of KS in Eastern Africa. This trend is consistent with the geographic variations of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. According to Globocan, the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma in Eastern Africa in 2012 was 10.2% of the total cancer incidence in the region. Despite the high incidence of endemic Kaposi sarcoma and HIV/AIDS associated KS, the lack of awareness among the people, late presentation of the disease, the high cost of treatment, and unavailability of treatment are some of the factors likely to impede the growth of the Middle East and Africa market.
Key players operating in the global Kaposi sarcoma market include Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly and Co., Hoffman-La Roche, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer, Inc., and Schering Plough Corporation (Merck & Co., Inc.)
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