Clostridium difficile also known as C. difficile, or C. diff is a bacterium living with other microorganisms inside human alimentary canal. Usually, the number of bacteria are balanced by other microbes, but sometimes, due to antibiotic therapy, the balance is disturbed leading to overgrowth of C. diff. The toxins released by C. diff destroy the lining of the intestines, causing Clostridium difficile colitis. The bacterium is one of the most important sources of infectious diarrhoea in the U.S. Symptoms of a C. diff infection involves watery diarrhoea, which sometimes may be bloody, painful abdominal spasms, dehydration, dry mouth, headaches, fever of above 100.4o F, loss of appetite and weight loss. C. diff infection usually occurs in elderly people who are over 65 years old, people who have just completed a treatment course with broad-spectrum antibiotics, who have had to stay in hospitals and clinics for a longer duration, have a weak immune system, who are living with conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cancer or kidney disease, who are on proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy and had surgery on their digestive system. The treatment methods of C. diff infection involves terminating the antibiotics thought to be causing the infection, a 10 to 14-day course of antibiotics that can kill C. difficile bacteria and rarely, a surgery to remove a damaged section of the bowel caused due to severe C. diff infection.
The factors driving the growth of the global Clostridium difficile Infection Treatment market is expanding geriatric population pool, increasing use of broad-spectrum antibiotics such as cephalosporins and quinolones and PPIs, non-compliance of hygiene norms within hospital premises and tendencies of people to consume unhygienic junk foods. Over 80% of the deaths associated with C. difficile infections occurs among people aged 65 years or above. Emergence of drug-resistant strain of C. diff and the complications associated with treatment of severe infections may limit the market growth.
Global Clostridium difficile Infection Treatment market has been segmented on the basis of therapy, distribution channels and region.
Global Clostridium difficile infection treatment market is highly fragmented due to the presence of multiple players. According to the data of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Clostridium difficile causes around 500,000 infections in the United States annually. The statistics available from Public Health England reveals that number of C. difficile infections in the England has decreased substantially, from 55,498 cases to 13,361 cases over 2007/08 – 2013/14 owing to mandatory surveillance, monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions and reformed compliance with isolation, hand?washing and hygiene protocols.
Geographically, Clostridium difficile infection treatment market is segmented into regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa. Globally, incidences of Clostridium difficile infection are increasing. The market in North America is expected to increase due to increase in the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection, expanding geriatric population base and abnormally increased incidence among peripartum women, children and those with minimal recent healthcare exposure. European countries are expected to account for decline in market growth as the number of C. difficile infections in the region is decreasing. Asia Pacific is the largest market of Clostridium difficile Infection Treatment globally because of prevalence of a huge population in need of healthcare services. Poor quality of healthcare services in the Asian countries along with non-compliance of isolation, hand?washing and hygiene protocols and uncontrolled broad-spectrum antibiotic prescriptions will further lead the expansion of the market in the region.
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Few global players in the global Clostridium difficile infection treatment market include Baxter, Eli Lilly and Company, Enzo Life Sciences, Inc., Sandoz International GmbH, Pfizer Inc., Mylan, Inc., Hospira, Inc., APP Pharmaceutics, LLC, AstraZeneca, Panacea Biotec and Biocon.
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