Tissue microarray is a high-throughput technology which accelerates and facilitates in situ analysis of tissue. The identification of disease causing gene is a major focus in the current advanced biomedical research. Array-based technology provides platform for molecular profiling of disease genes and tissue such as DNA array and tissue array. Thousands of genes are already identified using microarray technology that may be associated with disease initiation, development, and progression. The identification theses genes has enhanced the process of lead discovery. Clinical evaluation of such leads is a challenging task as it involves analysis of numerous well-characterized tissue specimens. Tissue microarray helps in the analysis of thousands of tissue samples simultaneously in using array format. The technique of tissue microarray helps to maintain the pace with lead discovery process.
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The tissue microarray technology involves core needle biopsies of numerous tissue constructed on the block. It is prepared from paraffin-embedded tissue, fresh tissue, or from archival formalin fixed tissue. Small size tissue cylinders of about 0.6 mm size are extracted from different primary tumor blocks (donor blocks) and are assembled in array format in single empty block (recipient blocks).Tissue microarray blocks are used simultaneously for in situ analysis of tissue samples. Tissue microarray can be manufactured manually or automatically.
Tissue microarray has a number of advantages over standard conventional techniques. Tissue microarray enables high throughput data acquisition with simultaneous analysis of large number of specimens. This technology allows analysis of samples in one batch on one slide, thus maintaining the uniformity of variables such as temperature, incubation period, washing interval, and antigen retrieval. The technique uses small amount of reagent and has proven to be highly effective and extremely efficient with short duration process. The technique retains the original block for diagnosis and conserves the crucial tissue of donors. The technique is widely used in the diagnosis of tumor, especially breast cancer and lung cancer. In addition, tissue microarray is used for identification of novel molecular marker and clinical validation of new genes on histopathological platform for meaningful outcome. Tissue microarray is categorized into three types: multitumor array used for screening large group of tumor for presence and absence of marker; tumor progression array used for studying of molecular and morphological variation at different stage of tumor progression; prognostic array for studying the correlation of clinical follow up outcome with microarray data. Factors such as increase in number of cases of tumor patient along with technology advances and adoption of microarray technique in genomic and proteomic filed due its rapid assay, uniformity in result, fewer sample requirement are anticipated to augment the growth of the tissue microarray market. However, high cost of microarray techniques and preference of users for alternative techniques such as PCR are projected to restrain the market growth during the forecast period.
The global market for tissue microarray has been segmented on the basis of product, application, end-user, and geography. On the basis of product, the market is segmented into cell line array, frozen tissue array, paraffin embedded tissue array, tissue array slides, and others. The paraffin embedded tissue array segment is estimated to dominate the market during the forecast period. On the basis of application, the market is classified into immunohistochemistry, FISH, mRNA, in situ hybridization, nucleic acid extraction, and others. The immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization segments are anticipated to capture significant market shares in the near future due to increase in adoption of protein expression methodology for diagnosis of disease.
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On the basis of end-user, the market is segmented into hospitals, clinics, diagnostic centers, and others. The technique of tissue microarray is highly precise and requires skilled person to handle and analyze the output data. Thus the market for hospital is anticipated to witness high growth during the forecast period.
Based on geography, the market has been distributed over North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. North America holds a significant market share and is projected to retain its dominance during the forecast period due to increase in health care expenditure, advance technology adoption, and rise in number of cases of cancer.
The key players operating in the tissue microarray market are Abcam plc, Asterand Bioscience, Auria Biopankki, Externautics, Novus Biologicals, LLC, OriGene Technologies Inc., Protein Biotechnologies Inc, PREMIER Biosoft, Pantomics Inc., and US Biomax Inc.
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