Endotoxemia is defined as the presence of endotoxins in the bloodstream, resulting in hemorrhages, necrosis of the kidneys and septic shock. Endotoxins are a major component of the cell wall of gram negative bacteria present in the form of lipopolysaccharides and infect both human beings and animals, majorly horses. Endotoxemia is responsible for powerful clinical manifestations involving pathogenic Gram-Negative (GN) bacteria such as meningococcemia, meningitis and Waterhouse syndrome. Alcoholic hepatitis is said to occur when endotoxemia infects intestine leading to the development of small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome and rapid increased intestinal permeability. Studies have noted that purified endotoxin from Eschericha coli and Enterobacter cloacae contribute to increased incidence of obesity and insulin resistance phenotypes in patients. Research studies have found that endotoxemia is not detectable for at least 20% and up to 50% of patients with GN bacteremia. Moreover, the relevance of endotoxemia to prognosis is dependent on the co-detection of GN bacteremia, and the underlying mortality risk in the study population. The unmet opportunity for usage of endotoxins in wide variety of indications is expected to push pharmaceutical companies to develop medicines with better efficacy.
Increasing incidence of endotoxemia, high mortality rates, and growing awareness about complications with endotoxemia among patient pool are the major drivers for the growth of endotoxemia market. However, the inadequate and poor detection techniques in the diagnostic market of endotoxemia could hinder the growth of endotoxemia market.
Treatment of endotoxemia involves prevention of endotoxin from entering the circulation, neutralization, of endotoxin, elimination or decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators, and providing supportive care. There are two ways by which patients’ endotoxins could be neutralized. First is by the use of hyperimmune serum or plasma administered intravenously. The other method is by administrating Polymyxin B, cationic polypeptide antibiotic. NSAID’s are also most commonly used drugs for the treatment of patients with endotoxemia. DMSOs are often administered for its anti-inflammatory effects. PTX is been used for the treatment of intermittent claudication in patients with endotoxemia. Administering antibiotics is important to treat sepsis in patients with endotoxemia. Due to increasing incidence of endotoxemia, it is expected that the demand for drugs against endotoxemia will increase equally and this would ultimately fuel the endotoxemia market with significant CAGR over the forecast period.
Depending on geographic region, endotoxemia market is segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. European markets could dominate the global endotoxemia market followed by North America over the forecast period. South America, Asia-Pacific and rest of the world are at initiation state in development of drugs for the treatment. The reason for their dominance in these emerging markets is rapid technological advancement in healthcare products and services and increasing economic affluence in various countries across the region.
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Key companies and universities operating in endotoxemia market are LG Life Sciences, Ltd., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Exponential Biotherapies, Inc., BASF SE, Dupont Danisco A/S, CoMentis, Inc., Radboud University, Medical University of Vienna, University of Pennsylvania, Penn State University, and many others.
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