Cerebral malaria is counted under severe malaria which according to CDC has an estimated 6.7 million new cases and around 4000 deaths in Kenya and other malaria prone areas such as Coastal and Western region and Nyanza. During cerebral malaria there is a state of unarousable coma with malaria infected blood in the peripheral circulation. The condition of coma is due to some other type of infections or hypoglycemia. The presence of retinopathy has been an addition in the clinical diagnosis of both adult and children. The postmortem studies done for observing the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria has found that Plasmodium falciparum infections accounts for majority of the cerebral malaria cases showing a common feature of vascular sequestration in the brain of infected erythrocytes. There is a difference between cerebral malaria in adults and in children. They can be differentiated based on the infected erythrocytes sequestration pattern with variable vascular pathology.
There has been a decline in the cases of malaria death and infections due to the research efforts. But at the same time, there has been an exponential rise in the drug resistance creating a need for new therapeutics. Moreover, the increase in the global temperature will expand the territory of mosquito-borne diseases driving a need to understand the molecular mechanism that underlines this parasitic infection. According to the National Institutes of Health, in 2015 there were 400,000 deaths from malaria mainly in children under years old. IN some cases, the parasite affects individual brain which kills 15% to 30% of the 200 million affected cases. Moreover, national government is granting universities research funds to investigate the treatment for cerebral malaria. In February 2017, NIH granted US$ 8.4 million to Michigan State University to investigate treatments for children with cerebral malaria.
Cerebral malaria as persists at least one hour after termination of a seizure in the presence of asexual P. falciparum parasitaemia and absence of other causes of encephalopathy. Any patient presenting with falciparum parasitaemia and impaired consciousness must be started on parenteral antimalarial drugs and shifted to an intensive care unit. Respiratory distress, severe malarial anemia, and hypoglycemia are the most common complications in pediatric cerebral malaria whereas acute renal failure, jaundice and hypoglycemia are the most frequent concurrent complications occurring in adult cerebral malaria cases.
Geographically, the cerebral malaria therapeutics market has been segmented into five major regions: North America, Europe, Latin America, and Middle East &Africa. North America dominated the cerebral malaria therapeutics market in terms of revenue followed by Europe. In North America, U.S. contributed to major share. Asia Pacific is expected to be the fastest growing region owing to the high incidence of malaria, rising healthcare industries and increasing investments for improving the infra-structure.
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Few of the manufacturers in the cerebral malaria therapeutics market are Novartis AG, Cipla, Inc., Zydus- Cadila, Ipca Laboratories Ltd., Sanofi and Eisai Co., Ltd
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