Avian influenza (AI), generally called bird flu, is an infectious viral disease of birds. I t is generally found in some species of water birds mainly in wild water fowl such as ducks and geese. Avian influenza virus sometimes infect poultry and other birds resulting in outbreaks. Avian influenza is usually rare in humans but sometimes it passes to human and other species due to close contact with the infected bird. The common virus which can infect humans are A(H5N1) and A(H7N9). Avian flu viruses are characterized into two high pathogenicity or low pathogenicity. The risk of transmission of avian flu is in those people who work in poultry, travel to virus infected countries, contact with infected bird and by eating raw or under cooked meat or eggs. The A(H5N1) virus subtype, is highly pathogenic, the first infection in humans of this virus was reported in 1997 in Hong Kong. After that the virus has spread to Asia, Europe and Africa and have affected many countries on large-scale, causing millions of poultry infections, several hundred human cases, and many human deaths. These avian flu outbreaks in poultry have seriously impacted livelihoods, the economy and international trade in affected countries. The A(H7N9) virus subtype, is very rare and is of a low pathogenicity and its cases are reported only in China. Avian flu symptoms depends of type of virus subtype infection. Preliminary symptoms of A(H5N1) virus include high fever, cough, diarrhea, headache, sore throat, runny nose, muscle ache. Also, lower respiratory tract problems emerge early in patients.
Avian Flu Treatment Market: Drivers and Restraints
Infection of avian flu virus is suspected and diagnosed on the basis of clinical representation, history of contact with infected case or a positive laboratory test. Thus, awareness will lead to better diagnosis, which in turn will drive the avian flu market. Avian flu pandemic at any point of time can drive the market in the future since the influenza virus different rates in different places such as in 2014, H5N8, a highly infectious subtype of avian influenza, caused disease outbreaks in poultry, starting from South Korea, followed by Asia, Europe, and North America. Also, the various guidelines and recommendation from government authorities will lead to better diagnosis and treatment. However, resistance to existing antivirals can negatively impact the sales of antiviral drugs since it will lead to changes in treatment guidelines.
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Avian Flu Treatment Market: Segmentation
The global avian flu treatment market is classified on the basis of treatment type, end user and geography.
Based on drug type, the global avian flu treatment market is segmented into the following:
- Neuraminidase inhibitors
- Ion channelM2 blockers
- Combination treatment
- Prophylactic antibiotics
- Steroids and other immunosuppressants
Based on end user, the global avian flu treatment marketis segmented into the following:
- Institutional Health Centers
Avian Flu Treatment Market: Overview
Global avian flu treatment marketis expected to witness healthy CAGR over the forecast period due to increase in awareness and diagnosis of avian flu. Increasing burden of avian flu on healthcare systems of endemic region such as Southeast Asia, China will lead to more stringent preventive measures in these regions. Treatment with the antiviral medications such as oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) should be started immediately to stop disease progression. Also, it is being reported that the antiviral medicines amantadine and rimantadine should not be used in the case of an H5N1 outbreak occurs due to antiviral resistance. Authorities such as WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are collaborating to assess and address the risk of avian flu
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Avian Flu Treatment Market: Regional Overview
Region wise, the global avian flu treatment marketis classified into seven regions namely, North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, Asia-Pacific, Japan, Middle East and Africa. North America has conventionally dominated the global market for avian flu treatment market due to heightened awareness and good reimbursement policies. Asia-pacific and Africa remains highly susceptible due to past endemics. Although the outbreak of avian flu remains unpredictable but recent outbreaks in France, Nigeria, and Vietnam will push the market.
Avian Flu Treatment Market: Key Players
Some of the players in global avian flu treatment market include Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc, Forest Pharmaceuticals Inc., and BioCryst Pharmaceuticals among others.