Antidiuretics are drugs used to control water balance in individuals suffering from diabetes insipidus (DI). Antidiuretic drug consist of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and use of thiazide base diuretics. Antidiuretic hormone is commonly known as arginine vasopressin. Antidiuretic hormone is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland. The rate of secretion of antidiuretic hormone is controlled by osmoreceptors present in the hypothalamus. Increase in contraction of plasma fluid leads to physiological stimuli for antidiuretic hormone release.
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Antidiuretics bind with receptor cells present in the kidney and increase water reabsorption by stimulating aquaporins present in membranes of kidney tubules. These aquaporins transport solute free water from the tubules to the blood by decreasing the osmolality of plasma cells. As the concentration of plasma cells increases, the rate of antidiuretic hormone release increases in the blood which increases reabsorption of water. This increases water retention and urine concentration. Deficiency of antidiuretic hormones causes two types of diabetes insipidus: cranial diabetes insipidus and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The symptoms of diabetes insipidus are increase in water intake to compensate the loss of water. In very rare situations, diabetes insipidus can develop during pregnancy and lead to gastrointestinal diabetes insipidus.
Cranial diabetes occurs when there is not enough antidiuretic hormone present in the body to control urine production. It is the most common type of diabetes insipidus which occurs when the pituitary gland or the hypothalamus does not function properly. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys fail to function properly in the presence of antidiuretic hormone. It is caused due to kidney malfunction. In order to treat diabetes insipidus, desmopressin and vasopressin are used which replicate the function of antidiuretic hormone function. The most common medications used for the treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus are thiazide diuretics, which help to reduce the amount of urine produced by the kidney. The inherited form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is due to mutation in AVPR gene, in very rare cases approximately 10% of inherited diabetes insipidus results from mutation in aquaporin 2 gene. The acquired form of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus can lead to cyst formation in the kidney, high calcium levels in blood, and lead to kidney infections.
The prevalence rate of diabetes insipidus in the U.S. is about 1 in 6,666, while the prevalence rate of diabetes insipidus among general population is approximately 1 in 25,000 individuals.
Major drivers of the antidiuretics market are growing awareness, rising prevalence of diabetes, increasing geriatric population, increase in obesity in the young generation, and government initiatives to promote research related to the study of antidiuretics and its use to control diabetes insipidus. High cost associated with the drug, stringent regulatory scenarios in drug development, risk factors associated with antidiuretics such as excessive bleeding, light headedness, and hematoma during collection of blood sample from individuals on diuretics are likely to restrain the antidiuretics market during the forecast period.
Geographically, the global antidiuretics market has been segmented into five key regions: North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America leads the global antidiuretics market largely because of increasing population, rising number of diabetic population, and growing research activity. North America was closely followed by Europe and Asia Pacific. Asia Pacific is an emerging market for antidiuretics primarily because of increasing health care expenditure in the region and rising demand.
Key players in the global antidiuretics market are Pfizer, Novartis AG, F Hoffmann-La Roche, bioMérieux, Merck & Co., Sanofi, Cayman Chemical, and JHP Pharmaceuticals LLC, and others.
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