Antibiotics are also termed as antimicrobials or antibacterials, are a group of medicinal drugs prescribed for the treatment of infections caused by germs such as bacteria or some specific parasites. The antibiotics work by killing or arresting the growth of microorganisms. A restricted number of antibiotics also comprise of antiprotozoal activity. Ever since the discovery of first antibiotic penicillin in 1920, several compounds of antibiotics have been vastly used for the treatment of various bacterial infections. Research done on the antibiotics market, states that escalating prevalence over the years of infectious and chronic diseases across the globe and efficiency of antibiotics for the treatment of broad spectrum of bacterial infections have resulted in extremely fast evolution of the antibiotics across the world. However, antibiotics are efficient against viruses such as influenza or common cold, and their wrong use enables the surfacing of resistant organisms. Medicinal drugs that reduce the growth of viruses are known as antivirals or antiviral drugs instead of antibiotics. A few sources differentiate amongst antibiotic and antibacterial – where antibiotics are used as medicines, antibacterials are used in disinfectants and soaps.
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How do antibiotics work?
Diverse families of antibiotics have diverse methods of obliterating bacteria. Mentioned below are the descriptions of some of the types of antibiotics and their chemical mechanisms.
Beta-Lactam – these antibiotics work by killing bacteria which are walled by a cell wall. Bacteria makes cell walls by connecting molecules together, beta-lactams obstructs this process. With no support from a cell wall, the pressure within the cell becomes excess and eventually the membrane bursts. Cephalosporin and penicillin are the two examples of beta-lactams that are used in various types of bacterial infections.
Macrolides – these antibiotics specifically affect ribosomes, which are known to be the cell’s protein-building machines. Ribosomes establish proteins in both human cells and bacteria, nevertheless there are dissimilarities between human ribosomes and bacterial ribosomes. Macrolides antibiotics obstruct only bacterial ribosomes and avoid them from producing proteins. Proteins take up all the cell’s work, a single bacterium cannot construct proteins cannot survive. An example of macrolides which is widely used for the treatment of respiratory tract and skin infections is Erythromycin.
Quinolones – antibiotics such as levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin fall under the group of quinolones antibiotics. These are prescribed to treat pneumonia and bronchitis infections. This antibiotic works by breaking the strands of DNA which the bacteria start to copy. The bacteria fail to reproduce in the absence of an intact DNA.
Antibiotics fail to fight infections that are caused by viruses, like flu, cold, sore throats (not due to strep), coughs, and bronchitis. Inappropriate use of antibiotics will harm the body. If a virus is making you ill, consuming antibiotics might do more harm than actual good. Having antibiotics more than the prescribed amount will lead to antibiotic resistance. One must follow and complete the complete course of antibiotics, even if he or she starts feeling better, since stopping the treatment mid-way might lead to relapse.
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Table Of Content:
Global Antibiotics Market Research Report 2017
1 Antibiotics Market Overview
1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Antibiotics
1.2 Antibiotics Segment by Type
1.2.1 Global Production Market Share of Antibiotics by Type in 2015
1.2.2 β- lactam
1.3 Antibiotics Segment by Application
1.3.1 Antibiotics Consumption Market Share by Application in 2015
1.4 Antibiotics Market by Region
1.4.1 North America Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.2 Europe Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.3 China Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.5 Southeast Asia Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
1.4.6 India Status and Prospect (2012-2022)
13 Research Findings and Conclusion
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