Aminoglycosides are highly potent, antibiotics with several properties for the treatment of life-threatening infections. Aminoglycosides have concentration-dependent bactericidal activity by binding to the 30S ribosome that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis. Spectinomycin is a bacteriostatic antibiotic chemically related to the aminoglycosides. Protein binding of aminoglycosides antibiotics is less than 10%. Aminoglycosides are poorly absorbed through oral administration, where as they are well absorbed through pleural cavity, joints and peritoneum regions. Aminoglycosides are polar drugs and the distribution is mainly restricted to extracellular fluids except for vitreous humor, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), respiratory secretions, and bile. The distribution volume of aminoglycosides is approximately 20-25% of body weight. Modification of distribution coefficient of aminoglycosides occurs in patients suffering from gram negative sepsis and are dehydration, hematological disorders, burned patients, etc. Aminoglycosides are primarily excreted through the kidney by glomerular filtration. The 80%-90% of the administered dose is excreted in the urine resulting in high urinary concentrations.
Aminoglycosides are more active against gram-negative, aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacilli. Increase in disease indication due to bacterial infections such as Plasmodium aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, and increase in incidence of tuberculosis among emerging regions such as Asia Pacific and Middle East & Africa which are expected to boost growth of the global aminoglycosides market. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2013, there were 368 Mn people with hearing impairment disorder due to tuberculosis. The prevalence of hearing loss both in children as well as in adults over 65 years of age was highest in South East Asia, Asia Pacific and Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, the use of aminoglycosides in tuberculosis treatment is expected to fuel growth of aminoglycosides market in these regions through 2024. Renal toxicity, vestibular and auditory toxicity side-effects are expected to hamper the global aminoglycoside market growth during the forecast period.
Aminoglycoside market has been segmented by product type, by disease indication, by route of administration and by geography. In terms of product type aminoglycoside market is classified into natural aminoglycosides such as gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin and tobramycin, and semisynthetic aminoglycosides such as netilmicin and amikacin. In terms of disease indication, the global market is segmented into tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, amoebiasis, meningitis, cystic fibrosis, and others. Route of Administration of aminoglycosides depend upon the type & site of infection. Aminoglycoside can be administered orally, injectable (parenteral), intra-mammary and topical. Gentamicin is an important product type for major bacterial infection occuring among the patients. Gentamicin market is expected to grow significantly due to low cost and reliable activity against gram-negative aerobes. Tobramycin has been found to be slightly more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. Amikacin and gentamicin find maximum usage in veterinary medicine. According to the WHO, amikacin may be effective against some gentamicin resistant bacteria and more suitable for hospital settings where gentamicin resistance rates are high.
Geographically aminoglycoside market is classified into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America dominates the global aminoglycoside market in terms of value due to increase in bacterial infections and introduction of novel, key players for production of aminoglycoside. Early-phase diagnosis and treatment of disease is expected to drive the growth of the aminoglycoside market in North America. Europe is the second largest market for aminoglycoside in terms of value as there are favourable government policies regarding health care infrastructure and awareness of population. Asia Pacific is expected to grow at higher rate due to rising population, tropical climate which initiates bacterial infections, rising awareness between patients and increasing per capita expenditure. In addition, economic growth is supporting the healthcare infrastructure improvement in developing countries such as India and China. Thus, all the above mentioned factors collectively fuel the growth of aminoglycoside market in Asia Pacific. Middle East and Africa is another major region which is projected to grow remarkably due to rise in tuberculosis and HIV disease rate among the population. According to the WHO, South Africa had one of the highest rates of drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDRTB) in the world, for which the use of 2nd line injectable anti-TB drugs are associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL).
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