Rotaviral Vaccines have been developed with a variation depending on the source of virus and the virus types used. Currently pre-qualified oral rotaviral vaccines are live attenuated with Rotarix, antigen and RotaTeq. The medicines are given orally. Medically rotavirus is a double-stranded RNA virus of the family Reoviridae and the virus comprises three concentric shells with 11 gene segments enclosed. The outermost shell contains two important proteins VP7 or G-protein and VP4 or P-protein. VP7 and VP4 determine the stereotype of the virus and influence a neutralizing antibody which is involved in immune protection.
Rotavirus is much stable and remains intact in the environment for weeks and even months if not disinfected. Rotaviruses cause infection in most species of mammals which include cows & monkeys. These animals are antigenically different from those causing human infection which rarely causes infection humans.
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The incubation period for rotavirus diarrhea is much short and so the clinical manifestations of infection keep fluctuating and depend on whether it is the first infection or re-infection. The very first infection after three months of age is generally the most severe. Infection may be asymptomatic which causes watery diarrhea and may even result in severe dehydrating diarrhea with fever or vomiting. Almost three quarters of children may experience fever with a much high temperature and gastrointestinal symptoms usually resolves in 3 to 7 day maximum. Thus, the clinical features and stool characteristics of rotavirus are non-certain and the same illness is caused by other pathogens. Consequently, diarrheal illness requires laboratory confirmation along with laboratory testing.
Rotavirus vaccine is available and the first dose must be given at 2 months of age followed by second at age 4 and again followed by third dose at 6 months of age. Almost all babies getting a rotavirus vaccine gets protection against rotavirus diarrhea and most of the babies won’t suffer from rotavirus diarrhea at all. Babies with allergic reactions to a dose of rotavirus vaccines should get another dose only under medical supervision. There are certain risks associated with rotavirus vaccination. There are mild and severe side effects. Mild problems following rotavirus vaccine include temporary diarrhea or vomiting whereas severe problems such as intussusception, a severe type of bowel blockage which could require major surgery, are encountered.
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The key driving factors responsible for the growth of rotavirus vaccines market include growing incidence of diarrheal disease in infants and children. Additionally, diseases rising from unhygienic conditions prevailing in developing and underdeveloped countries contribute more to the development of rotavirus vaccine market. However, availability of generic drugs at a cheaper rate is likely to impede the market growth during the forecast period. On the basis of application, the global rotavirus vaccines market is segmented into pediatric and adult.
On the basis of geographic segmentation, the global rotavirus vaccines market spans North America, Latin America, Europe, Middle-East, Asia-Pacific and Africa. Africa and APAC regions dominate the global market owing to large number of child population suffering from diarrhea and other bowel related diseases and import of rotavirus vaccines to treat such diseases. North American and European market is anticipated to grow at a higher CAGR owing to extensive R&D in child vaccination and presence of big players. The key players in the global rotavirus vaccines market include Astellas Pharma, CSL Limited, GlaxoSmithKline, Johnson & Johnson, Emergent BioSolutions, MedImmune, and Merck.
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