Anti-thrombin activators help in reduction of thrombus formation. Different anti-thrombin drugs such as anti-platelet drugs, anticoagulants, and thrombolytic drugs act by different mechanisms. Antithrombotic drugs are most commonly used in prevention and treatment of arterial and venous thrombosis, although the disorder still remains one of the major reasons for morbidity and mortality across the globe. This showcases that the existing drugs are not potential enough in order to treat the diseases leading to clot formation. Thus, there is tremendous potential for growth for development of newer drugs. Moreover, patent expiry of two leading drugs Plavix and Lovenox has opened new avenues for the generic market players to emerge in the anti-thrombin activators market.
Arterial thrombosis is a most commonly caused due to ischemic stroke, limb gangrene and myocardial infarction (MI). On the other hand, venous thrombosis includes deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Complications in DVT are known to occur due to the post thrombotic syndrome, and pulmonary embolism (PE), which can be fatal leading to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Blood vessel damage, inactivity, pregnancy, medical and genetic conditions, obesity, and smoking are the major causes of thrombosis. The demand for life savings drugs is bound to increase with the growing population worldwide.
The global antithrombotic activators market can be segmented based on activator type, and geography. Anti-thrombins can be classified as anti-platelet drugs, anticoagulants and thrombolytic drugs. Anti-platelet drugs restrict the aggregation of platelets. Anticoagulants act by limiting their ability of blood clotting while thrombolytic drugs dissolve clots already formed in the human body. Anticoagulants segment comprises heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors, vitamin K antagonists, and direct factor Xa inhibitors.
Geographically, the global antithrombin activators market can be segmented into four major regions: North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Rest of the World. The demand for such drugs is anticipated to increase in the Asia Pacific region, owing to the ever increasing population in emerging economies like India and China. Although these drugs are readily available, there is not a single drug that is sufficiently effective against the disease and does not have any major side effects. Hence, newer and better drugs are under research that are more potent and do not have any side effects.
There is tremendous potential for growth of these drugs globally since there are no specific drug substitutes that can be used thus propelling the demand for these drugs in the near future. New antithrombotic agents have been developed to overcome the drawbacks of existing drugs. Most of the advances have been in the area of anticoagulants and anti-platelet drugs.
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Various thrombolytic therapeutic drugs include reteplase, lanoteplase, streptokinase, staphylokinase, tenecteplase and urokinase. New anti-platelet agents include thromboxane A2 receptor antagonists (terutroban, dpicotamide), adenosine diphosphate receptor (ADP) antagonists (such as cangrelor, ticagrelor, and elinogrel), and protease activated receptors (PAR-1) antagonists (such as vorapaxar, and atopaxar).
Alfimeprase, plasmin, and V10153 are examples of direct acting fibrinolytic drugs that have been developed in an attempt to accelerate breakdown of clots, whereas desmoteplase is used due to its enhanced fibrin specificity. Apixaban is also a newer entry in this category as factor Xa inhibitor. An indirect inhibitor of Factor Xa such as Idrabiotaparinux, accelerates the activity of anti-thrombins.
Moreover, extensive research and trials is ongoing for development of better and safe drugs. Some of the leading companies manufacturing antithrombotic activators are Astra Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis AG, Bristol-Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Pfizer, Eli Lilly & Co., Bayer International, Johnson & Johnson and others.
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