Aeromonads is genus comprising of gram negative bacteria. These are non spore forming, rod shaped bacteria and require anaerobic environment for growth. Aeromonads bacteria are widely distributed in fresh water bodies and marine water environment. These can grow at large range of temperatures, and causes wide spectrum of infectious diseases in warm and cold blooded animals such as fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and humans as well. The genus Aeromonads consist of more than 13 species out of which Aeromonads hydrophila, Aeromonads caviae, Aeromonads sobria, Aeromonads veronii, and Aeromonads schubertii, and Aeromonads salmonicida are responsible for infections in humans.
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An Aeromonads bacteria affects human in two major diseases forms namely gastroenteritis and wound infection. The infection relating to gastroenteritis is associated with diarrheal illness and septicemia along with nausea and vomiting. The later stage of this infection can cause severe colitis and pancreatitis. This can affect humans across all ages and both genders, whereas majority of the infections are acquired by foreign travelling.
There are very few cases of wound infection but can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated early. Now days there are cases emerging of Aeromonad infection in Urinary Tract, respiratory tract and dermal surface of the body. Aeromonad diagnosis is vital part of treatment because of its resistance to various antibiotics such as erythromycin, cephalosporin, and penicillin.
Though the microorganism has presence in entire world, according to a research study Aeromonads infection cases occurs more in developing countries due to contamination of drinking water, consuming infected foods among other factors. Geographically Aeromonads infection cases can be segmented in Asia Pacific regions, Africa, Europe, South America and North America. A report mentioned that in 2012, out of total diarrheal cases of travelers to developing countries, 2% are because of Aeromonads infections. The delayed or improper treatment can cause even death or life threatening diseases in infected people. As Aeromonads infections symptoms mimic other infections it is critical to diagnose Aeromonads infection in humans.
There are several methods for identification and diagnosis of Aeromonads infection which includes culture cultivation technique, enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) technique and the advanced PCR assay testing by isolation of bacteria DNA. This is the most accurate and reliable method of diagnosing presence of Aeromonads infection but at the same time is involves significant cost and training. This process comprises of rapid isolation of high quality DNA with high sensitivity and specificity which are then compared and recognized.
Aeromonads infections occurs among people from developed countries such as The USA, Europe and major countries within the region, Japan, Australia, frequent travelers to African region, Middle Eastern and Asian countries. This infection is also causing considerable burden on various economies in the world and ultimately costing millions of dollars to the governments on healthcare expenditure. Therefore market for diagnostic testing of Aeromonads infection will continue to grow. The market for Aeromonads diagnostic testing can be divided industry wise among food processing industry, hospitals, government agencies such as municipal corporations, aquatic or marine animal based industries and different academic institutions.
Some of the key players in Aeromonads infection diagnosis testing market are Hardy Diagnostics, Becton Dickinson and Company, DuPont Qualicon, Thermo Scientific, Life Technologies, AmpliSens Biotechnologies and Qiagen.
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