Peptide Vaccines are composed of one or more microbial proteinaceous antigens that, when administered, elicit protective immunity against the microbial pathogen. Peptide vaccines are peptides that exhibit pharmacological properties by activating human immune system rather than showing pharmacologically activity by themselves. They are administered into body to enter in lymph nodes where they induce long lasting immune response. They utilize immune system and develop long term acquired immunity which has capability to prevent future incidences of pathogen attack.
Peptides are molecules formed by combinations of amino acids linked by peptide bonds through the dehydration-condensation reaction. Peptides can be obtained conveniently from the products of proteolysis, direct synthesis by the body, or artificial synthesis. Peptides play a large role in the treatment of diseases.
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Every living cell in human body has surface markers as an instrument to identify self from non-self which is artificially provided by vaccines. When foreign entity penetrates into the body, defense mechanism already triggered by vaccines gets activated to protect from spread of pathogen. Progress in recombinant DNA technology is the basis of development of peptide vaccine without which current progress has not been achieved by pharmaceutical companies.
Peptide vaccines include one or more short or long amino acids sequences, as an antigen combined with a vaccine adjuvant. Thus they fall in the broad category of defined antigen vaccines, along with the vaccines using proteins, protein sub units, DNA and RNA. They remain the most immunogenic approaches based on the measures of T-cell responses. Peptide immunogenicity is influenced by the way in which peptides are presented to the immune system, underscoring the need for multifunctional delivery systems that couple antigen and adjuvant into a single construct.
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The global Peptide Vaccine Market is segmented on the basis of product type, types, application, particulate delivery methods and region. On the basis of product type, the global market is classified into Biomarkers and NY-ESO-1. Biomarkers like Melanoma-Associated Antigen 1 for melanoma cancer vaccine and NY-ESO-1 for lung cancer are being developed. On the basis of types, the global market is classified into long peptide vaccine, multipeptide non-cocktail vaccine, peptide cocktail vaccine, hybrid peptide vaccine, personalized peptide vaccine, peptide-pulsed DC vaccine.
Hybrid peptide vaccine: Peptide sequences of most of the single epitope vaccines as well as multi-epitope long peptide vaccines are native sequences with or without modification of anchor amino acids. On the basis of application, the global market is classified into Prostate Cancer, Breast Cancer, Gastric Cancer, Lung Cancer, and Pancreatic Cancer. Peptide vaccines for treatment and prevention of cancer are expected to occupy a major share in global vaccine market as well as in other fields like infectious and neurobiological disease. On the basis of particulate delivery methods, the global market is classified into Emulsions, Liposomes, Virosomes, Polymeric particles, Adjuvants approved for human use.
Geographically, the global market is segmented into North America, China, Europe, Japan, India, and Southeast Asia. The key players are AFFiRiS, AlerGenetica, Apitope Technology, Araclon Biotech, Artificial Cell Technologies, Benovus Bio, Immune Design, Immunocellular Therapeutics, Invectys, ISA Pharmaceuticals, Lytix Biopharma, Medinet, Merck Serono, OncoTherapy Science, and PeptiVir.
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