Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is one of the major cause of visual loss among the geriatric population. RVO is the second common cause of blindness after diabetic retinopathy. The RVO is mainly of two types based on the anatomy of the vein occlusion. The two types are branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The BRVO occurs when the vein in the distal retinal system gets occluded causing bleeding along the distribution of the vein. While, CRVO occurs when the central retinal vein gets blocked and hemorrhage occurs along its distribution. The major symptoms observed in RVO condition is blurred vision or vision loss. The complications of RVO include macular edema, anterior segment neovascularization and retinal neovascularization.
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Several treatment options have been identified including usage of corticosteroids such as intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide, dexamethasone and Anti-VEGF therapy. The application of vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) inhibitors has aided the ophthalmologists for treatment of RVO-related edema that has been instigated due to hypoxia- induced expression of VEGF along with products such as ranibizumab (Lucentis), bevacizumab (Avastin) and pegaptanib sodium (Macugen). The drug ranibizumab is FDA approved drug used for treatment of both CRVO and BRVO.
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The treatment of macular edema, as the first line of therapy is anti-VEGF agents however, other surgical interventions are also being explored like grid laser photocoagulation therapy. However, at present there are no well determined prophylactic methods for macular edema. Hence, timely diagnosis and use of aforementioned drugs is of prime importance to avoid vision loss due to RVO. Geographically, North America accounts for the largest market followed by the Europe. However, with growing disposable income in the emerging countries such as India, China and Brazil has also boosted the market growth in these regions. The major players of this market include companies such as Sanofi Aventis, Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Allergan are among few of these players.
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