Intellectual disability refers to people who have been classified by one or more terms such as developmental disability, developmental delay and mental handicap. Recently, people classified as having ‘mental retardation’ are also being referred as having intellectual disability. Usually, people are considered to have intellectual disability if they have greater difficulty than most people with intellectual and adaptive functioning. These limitations are expressed in the person’s conceptual, social and practical everyday living skills. Intellectual disability is usually diagnosed through the use of standardized tests of adaptive behavior and intelligence. The precise number of people having intellectual disabilities is not known. However, the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) estimates that roughly 1.5% to 2.5% of the general population have intellectual disability which translates to roughly 4.6 million to 7.7 million people as per the most recent U.S. Census (2011). Over last 30 years, services provided to the people with intellectual disabilities have been changed radically and the institutional care has been replaced by community residential service in several countries.
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The global market for the residential intellectual disability facilities can be segmented on the basis of size of facility, type of facility, mode of operation and geography. Based on the number of beds in the residential intellectual disability facilities the market can be segmented further into 4 to 9, 10 to 19, 20 to 49, 50 to 99, 100 to 199, and 200 & more beds. Besides, there are different types of facilities that provide intellectual disability facilities – hospitals, group homes, private home, intellectual and developmental disability facilities. Based on the mode of operation, the global residential intellectual disabilities market can be segmented into state-run facilities, Medicaid funded services, private large facilities, and privately run small facilities. The demand for these residential facilities is largely dependent on the reimbursement through Medicare and Medicaid programs.
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Demand-Supply Gap Persist in the Market
Since 2008, increased federal funding for these programs and the additionally enrolled or eligible people for either of the federal programs, have led to the growth of the residential intellectual disability facilities in the U.S. Although the demand for housing or residential facilities for people with intellectual disabilities has been increasing in the recent years, the adequate supply of such facilities has not kept the required pace. Therefore, there is a huge deficit in the demand and the supply of these facilities. Another major restraint in the market growth is the difficulty in avoiding hospital admission for patients with intellectual disabilities who usually present challenges with their behavior and/or mental health problems.
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Increasing support from Governments across the Globe to aid Intellectually Disable Patients
On the basis of geography, the global residential intellectual disability facilities market can be segmented into five major geographies – North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Latin America and Rest of the World. Aging population, particularly in North America, and Europe, provide a good market opportunity for the market players. Another driving factor is the increasing age of caregivers. Presently, most of the people affected with intellectual disability reside with family caregivers. Due to the changing demographics, caregivers will also age in the coming years and the shortage of caregivers will create more demand for the residential facilities for intellectually disable individuals. The market for such facilities has been very insignificant in most of the Asian countries and little progress is expected during the forecast period from 2014 to 2023. There are many local and national centers in the developing economies too which offer such facilities. For instance, Muskaan, Sandesh and Alamara Residential Centre for Persons with Developmental Disabilities are the centers that offer residential intellectual disability facilities in India.
There are government and private players in addition to local bodies offering residential intellectual disability facilities – NHS Allegheny Valley School, St. Joseph’s Center, Durham County Community, Residential Support Services, Lutheran Family Services and Arlington County Government.
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