Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) that are classified under transforming growth factor beta superfamily are multifactorial growth factors. These are naturally occurring proteins found in the human body, involved in numerous cellular responses. BMPs were first isolated in 1965 by scientist Marshall Urist for the ability to induce the formation of bone and cartilage. To date over 15 BMPs have been isolated and cloned. However, only BMP-2 and BMP-7 are considered to show the greatest amount of osteoinductive potential. Both the types of BMPs share similar kind of cell receptors (Type 1 and Type 2 BMP receptor) that help in regulating bone growth. Thus, for clinical use, BMPs are produced through recombinant DNA technology namely rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7. These BMPs have been approved by the FDA for use in orthopedic applications such as spinal fusions, oral surgery, and tibia non-unions. These proteins posses the ability to induce patients own cells for bone formation. In addition, BMPs have proved to be beneficial for patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery by eliminating the need for bone harvesting from the pelvis region. This innovative research approach also reduces the amount of pain, dependence on spinal rods or screws, and augments the rate of spinal fusion. Although, BMPs have proved to be a noteworthy bone graft substitute in spinal fusion, a variety of complications are associated with its off-label usage. Uncontrolled bone formation, bone overgrowth, male sterility, leg pain, back pain, respiratory complication, and inflammation are some of the side effects associated with the implant of BMPs. Thus, the market for BMPs has been restricted by biocompatibility issues, high cost, strict regulations, and presence of numerous bone graft substitutes.
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The global bone morphogenetic proteins market is studied based on the types of recombinant BMPs, applications, and geography. Based on recombinant BMP types, the market has been further segmented into two major segments namely, rhBMP-2 and liquid rhBMP-7. Among the type segments, the rhBMP-2 segment accounted for the largest share (in terms of revenue) of the market in 2013. rhBMP-2 has been widely accepted by physicians and surgeons across the globe due to their effectiveness in treating lower back spinal fusions. rhBMP-7 on the other hand is expected to completely diminish from the market in the future due to withdrawal of OP-1/Opgenra from the market since August 2014. In terms of application, spinal fusion currently accounts for the largest share of the market, followed by trauma. However, the reconstructive segment is likely to grow at a low CAGR during the forecast period from 2014 to 2022. The reason for sluggish growth is limited usage of BMP products for reconstructive surgery and presence of numerous well-established alternative bone graft substitutes.
In terms of regional distribution, North America currently accounts for the largest share of the bone morphogenetic proteins market, followed by Europe. Furthermore, North America, with a market share of over 70%, is expected to dominate the industry during the forecast period. This leadership would be witnessed due to high awareness about BMP products, availability of premium priced recombinant BMP products, and soaring number of spinal fusion procedures. Furthermore, highest growth of this industry is expected to emerge in Asia Pacific during the forecast period. The global bone morphogenetic proteins market is characterized by three players namely Medtronic plc, Olympus Biotech, and Cellumed.
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