Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) alternatively known as premenstrual tension is a combination of physical, emotional, psychological disturbances among women of child bearing age. Premenstrual syndrome symptom occurs 1-2 weeks before the onset of menstruation and usually disappears once the menstrual bleeding starts. The exact cause of the disease is though not clear yet fluctuations in hormone level are one of the prominent reasons for onset of symptoms.
Other associated cause of the disease include low level of vitamin and mineral level, high intake of salty food and frequent alcohol & caffeine consumption. Symptoms of the diseases include acne, swollen breasts, troubled sleeping, muscles pain, mood swings and anxiety disorders. A more severe form of PMS known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder, characterized by repeated transitory cyclic disorder along with increased level of anger, anxiety and tension as compared to PMS disease.
Approximately 20-30% of the menstruating women are believed to be affected by premenstrual syndrome of which 3-8% of them have premenstrual dysphoric disorder. Drugs that are usually employed as therapeutics include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs which control and regulate symptoms such as abdominal cramps, joint pain and headache. Antidepressants such as fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline can also be included in the regular therapy but it must be taken before actual symptoms begin. In premenstrual dysphoric disorder, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists such as leuprolide or goserelin can also be employed to regulate rapid fluctuations in the hormone levels.
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Nutritional therapy such as vitamin B6, vitamin E, calcium and magnesium along with moderate exercise help in increasing success rate of treatment. Calcium carbonate can be recommended as first-line therapy for women with mild-to-moderate PMS whereas, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be considered as first-line therapy for women with severe PMS complications.
Major drivers to the growth of premenstrual syndrome market includes increasing inclination of key players and government interventions towards developing novel therapeutics as a long term cure to this disease. Awareness and growing concern about premenstrual syndrome especially among women from developed economic countries have effectively contributed towards demand for PMS drugs and diagnostic tests. Till date there is no diagnostic device present to confirm PMS or PMDD yet two of the well-validated scales for the recording of premenstrual symptoms include the Calendar of Premenstrual Experiences (COPE) and the Prospective Record of the Severity of Menstruation (PRISM). Growing demand for hormone therapy based treatment across the globe has tremendously contributed towards increase in revenues and upliftment of PMS market.
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