Nosocomial infections, most commonly called as hospital acquired diseases or health care associated infections (HAI), are acquired by patients during their stay in hospitals. Since the last decade, remarkable prevalence of nosocomial infectionshas been observed worldwide and its morbidity rate is growing rapidly. Patients with weak immune system, those exposed to improper hygiene conditions in hospitals, the high neonatal population in developing countries and elderly patients across the globe are highly susceptible to nosocomial infections. Aging of population is one of the major factors that has increased the incidence rate of hospital acquired diseases worldwide. Growing morbidity rate has resulted in a rise in nosocomial infection mortality.
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Contraction of nosocomial infection prolongs hospital stay of patients and ultimately results in the increase in expenditure of patients. Though various diagnostic tests are available in the market for detection of infectious microorganisms, approximately 70% of such pathogens are becoming resistant to at least one of the anti-bacterial drugs most commonly used in nosocomial infection treatments, thus creating a challenge for health care professionals to treat such patients. Increasing resistance to commonly used antibiotics has created a demand for microorganism specific detection test for better assessment by healthcare professionals in order to provide appropriate treatment. Molecular diagnostics, PCR, microarrays and solid phase hybridization are some of the major techniques used for the diagnosis of nosocomial infections. The development of nucleic acid testing (NAT) diagnostic products and related platforms have enabled the entry of many players in the hospital acquired disease testing market.
Nosocomial infections are mainly categorized into six types depending on the kind of infection, namely, hospital acquired pneumonia, urinary tract infection, blood stream infection, surgical site infection, MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) infection and other miscellaneous variants which include gastro intestinal infection, cardiovascular infections, respiratory infections and infections related to joints. Occurrence of hospital acquired UTI is highest in all types of nosocomial infections, leading to the highest market share by revenue of hospital acquired UTI testing segment in the overall hospital acquired disease testing market.
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In order to reduce the incidence rate of hospital acquired infections and the cost burden related to the same, governments in developed countries are increasingly trying to control and prevent the spread of nosocomial infections through several in-house and inspective initiatives. Developed countries in North America, Australia and Europe have governmental organizations that focus on control and prevention of hospital acquired diseases in the respective country, e.g. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States and National Health and Medical Research Council in Australia. These authorities have set a framework of rules and recommendations for healthcare organizations to manage each type of nosocomial infection. Recommendations framed by these institutions give detailed description of which test is to be performed for the diagnosis of which type of infection. Various methods such as blood culture tests, quantitative PCR, latex agglutination test, wound culture and tissue biopsy are commonly performed for nosocomial infection diagnosis. Newer diagnostic tools have enabled reduced turnaround time and accurate diagnosis of the infection, driving the hospital acquired disease testing market toward growth.
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Geographically, North America dominates the global hospital acquired disease testing market and is followed by Europe. Government initiatives to control and prevent nosocomial infection in these regions and their rigorous implementation to reduce the disease morbidity rate is driving the growth of nosocomial infection testing market. Asia Pacific is a lucrative market for hospital acquired disease testing owing to increased incidence of hospital acquired disease testing in countries like China and India and the growing need to reduce healthcare expenditure by both, the healthcare institutions and patients equally. Contribution by the Asian countries to the hospital acquired disease testing market is expected to increase further as the medical tourism industry flourishes in this region.
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