In allergic rhinitis, immune system identifies harmful substances known as allergens as an intruder. It is an Immunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated disease. Rhinitis can be classified as allergic and non-allergic. Allergic rhinitis is also known as hay fever and is caused by outdoor allergens such as pollen; indoor allergens which includes animal dander and dust mites. It can also be caused by perfume, exhaust from diesel, cigarette smoke and high use of tobacco. In non-allergic rhinitis immune system is not involved. Histamine and many chemical mediators are released as a response from immune system when it comes in the contact of allergens. Sneezing, running nose, post nasal drip, redness are some of the symptoms accompanying allergic rhinitis. Seasonal allergic rhinitis occurs for a particular part of the year and perennial allergic rhinitis symptoms continues all round the year. Occupational rhinitis is a work related rhinitis that is stimulated by allergens in work place which includes fumes from chemicals and corrosive gases.
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Mostly antihistamine is prescribed to reduce production of histamine. Antihistamine are available as eye drops, nasal spray and oral medicine. Cromoglycate nasal spray are used as an alternative to antihistamines. If the symptoms are severe then combination of steroid and antihistamine are prescribed. Nasal decongestants leads to vasoconstriction and helps relieve nasal congestion. Other medicines include nasal ipratropium bromide spray and leukatriene pathway inhibitors.
Immunotherapy is suggested to patients, who do not respond to medications and those who undergo side effects. Two types of immunotherapy prescribed are allergy shots and sublingual tablets.
According to American college of allergy, asthma and immunology allergic rhinitis mostly affects 40 million to 60 million Americans. Australian society of clinical immunology and allergy reported that allergic rhinitis affects 1 in 5 people in Australia and New Zealand. Increasing prevalence rate of allergy in both adult and children is anticipated to drive the global allergic rhinitis market. Consumers are also moving forward towards the use over-the-counter (OTC) products which is a trend in the global allergic rhinitis market.
Based on the therapy, drugs are considered as first line of therapy. With the help of immunotherapy, body builds resistance to allergen and helps in the improvement of symptoms. Allergic rhinitis is the fifth most common chronic disease in the U.S. According to American Academy of Otolaryngology, allergic rhinitis affects 1 in every 6 Americans and generates about US$ 2 Bn to US$ 5 Bn in direct health expenditures annually. In 2014, National Health interview Survey (NHIS) demonstrated that 8.4% of children in U.S. under 18 years of age suffered hay fever. American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology mentioned that allergic rhinitis affects between 10% and 30% of the population.
On the basis of regional presence, global allergic rhinitis market is segmented into five key regions viz. North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific, and Middle East & Africa. North America is expected to lead the allergic rhinitis market, as U.S. has highest incidence of allergy. Asia Pacific market is anticipated to grow at the fastest growth rate during the forecast period, owing to factors such as increasing pollution especially in countries such as China, Japan, and India.
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Some of the major players in allergic rhinitis market are AstraZeneca, MEDA Pharmaceuticals Inc., Sanofi-Aventis U.S. LLC, GlaxoSmithKline plc, Circassia Pharmaceuticals plc, Merck & Co., Inc., Sunovion pharmaceuticals Inc., UCB S.A., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd and Stallergenes Greer. Newer alternatives for medication using over-the-counter (OTC) products are entering the global market, along with expansion in the emerging markets, and greater focus on patient care and monitoring, have been the major strategies adopted by major players in the global allergic rhinitis market.
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