Glaucoma is caused due to rise in the intraocular pressure, if persists may lead to permanent eye damage.This increased pressure damages the optic nerve which transmits message to the brain High pressure is built due to the blockage of the trabecular meshwork which results in the accumulation of aqueous humor. Depending on the size of trabecular meshwork blockage, glaucoma can be categorized as open angle and narrow closure glaucoma. In open angle glaucoma trabecular meshwork blockage is wider than narrow angle glaucoma. This disease results in various symptoms such as redness in eye, nausea, vomiting, narrowing in vision and pain. This disease can be diagnosed by measuring eye pressure through tonometry.
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Glaucoma cannot be cured with various medications which could prevent the complete vision loss. These medications include eye drops, surgery and oral medications. Currently, the most widely used treatment for glaucoma includes eye drops and oral medications. Eye drops include Travatan Z®, Xalatan®, Lumigan®,Alphagan®P, iopidine®, Trusopt®, Azopt™, Diamox®, Combigan™, Cosopt® and Neptazane®. Lack of improvement in glaucoma patients with eye drops may compel the physicians to opt for second line of treatment which includes, prescribed oral medication which is in the form of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
Population above the age of 40 years is more prone for this disease due to malfunctioning of various eye structures. Rise in geriatric population around globe would augment the growth of this market. In addition, strong reimbursement policies in various nations for the treatment of this disease would also enhance the growth of this market. Recently, the Glaucoma Foundation (GF) of the U.S. granted around USD 40,000 to the researchers to improve the quality life of glaucoma patients.
Despite all these advantages, various risks associated with glaucoma treatment would hinder the growth of this market. These risks include fatigue, headache, drowsiness, allergy, reduced pulse rate, shortness of breath, depression, eye redness, itching, burning and blurred vision. In addition, laser surgeries would outwit this market which would also hamper its growth. The laser surgeries would overtake over chemo and eye drop therapy since it would serve wide range of patients with less side effects.
Some of the market players in glaucoma pharmaceutical market include Acadia Pharmaceuticals Inc., Allergan Inc., Inotek Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Merck & Co. Inc., Santen Pharmaceutical Co.Ltd. and Novartis International AG amongst other significant players.
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