Rhinoconjunctivitis is a combination of rhinitis and conjunctivitis and is one of the most common allergic reactions across the globe. It is an inflammatory disorder which affects nasal and conjunctival mucosa and is induced as a result of hypersensitive immune response. Rhinoconjunctivitis causes symptoms of allergic rhinitis such as sneezing, watery mucus, itchy nose, and nasal congestion, as well as conjunctivitis which include burning sensation, tears and redness of eyes. These symptoms may also be accompanied by systemic symptoms such as poor sleep, irritability and fatigue. Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is often mistaken with common cold and a person may realize this only after carrying out considerable allergy diagnostics. Various allergens are known to cause rhinoconjunctivitis including pollen grains, dust and dust mites, animal skin or dander, perfumes, smoke, hair and several others. Allergic rhinitis is one of the most common allergic reactions in U.S. According to National Institute for Health Research, more than 10 million individuals in the U.K. suffer from allergic rhinitis. The institute also explains that the over 90% of the individuals with allergic rhinitis frequently suffer from ocular symptoms. An article published in Journal of Allergy and Therapy mentions that allergic rhinitis is one of the most common reasons for hospital visits due to allergies. Other publications also report that majority of the patients with asthma also suffer from rhinitis, and over 20% of patients with rhinoconjunctivitis also have concomitant asthma.
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A broad spectrum of treatment is available for treatment of rhinoconjunctivitis. The treatment for allergic conjunctivitis includes both topical as well as systemic interventions such decongestants, mast-cell stabilizers, antihistamines, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and intranasal corticosteroids. In case of occasional symptoms, Claritin (loratadine), Reactine (cetirizine), Aerius (desloratadine), Allegra (fexofenadine) are prescribed. While if the symptoms are more frequent, intra-nasal corticosteroids are prescribed which include Avamys, Flonase, Nasacort, Nasonex, Omnaris, Rhinocort.
Article published in World Allergy Organizations Journal in 2013 suggests that no accurate data is available for studying the prevalence and its changing trends. This has hampered the research and development activities. The study also found that the prevalence of non food allergies is also increasing rapidly in Asia. Allergic asthma is also a rising concern for many countries. More than 5 million people in the U.K. suffer from asthma. A report published by European Environment and Health Information System, considerable increase in prevalence was observed for rhinoconjunctivitis in Poland, Romania and the Russia Federation for rhinoconjunctivitis. This increasing prevalence is a major factor driving the global rhinoconjunctivitis market. Consistent research and development, and growing awareness about allergies would also support the growth, especially in developing countries. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis has increased considerably in adults as well as children. Consumption of food that has been preserved extensively in refrigerators, industrialization and air pollution are also responsible for the increased prevalence according to a study published in Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research Journal. Similar conditions prevail in India, Korea, Singapore and other Asian countries.
Various pharmaceutical companies and research institutes are conducting research for the discovery for better treatment of the allergy. Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. is currently conducting phase III clinical trials for SCH 697243 a biological drug, and another candidate MK-8237 is under phase I trials. BioTech Tools S.A. is also developing gpASIT+TM as a potential treatment for rhinoconjunctivitis. The study is currently under phase II clinical trials. Such consistent research activities will add more products in the market and expand its scope. Some of the key players in the market include Johnson & Johnson Inc., Merck & Co., Inc. GlaxoSmithKline, and Sanofi.
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