Orthomyxoviridae infections are caused by a large family of viruses spanning six genera. They are responsible for the occurrence of influenza amongst both humans and animals. Influenzavirus A, Influenzavirus B, Influenzavirus C, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus are the six different types of orthomyxoviridae. Each of these genera also include several serotypes or sub-types, Influenza A includes major sub-types such as H1N1, H1N2, H2N2, H3N1, H3N2, H3N8, H5N1, H5N2, H5N3, H5N8, H5N9, H7N1, H7N2, H7N3, H7N4, H7N7, H7N9, H9N2 and H10N7. Thogotovirus includes Batken, Dhori and Jos sub-types. Influenza B includes the Victoria and Yamagata sero-types. Orthomyxoviridae diseases are communicable and spread through infected food, feces and bird droppings, water and mucus in aerosol form. Influenza viruses are destroyed when exposed to bleach, 70% ethanol, aldehydes, oxidizing agents, and quaternary ammonium compounds. The viruses are also inactivated by raising temperatures above 56 °C for minimum of 60 minutes, and in acidic conditions. Avian flu has the highest risk and mortality with more than 800 cases per 100,000 across the world according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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The viruses replicate by beginning from endocytosis, where haemagglutinin protein fuses the viral envelope with the vacuole’s membrane, releasing the viral RNA (vRNA) molecules, accessory proteins and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase into the cytoplasm. Due to the absence of RNA proofreading enzymes, the replication process makes a genetic error every 10,000 nucleotides thus mutating the virus on a very large scale. The genome of orthomyxovirus comprises six to eight segments of single stranded, linear and negative sense RNA. The complete genome is about 10,000 to 14,600 nucleotide long. Though the epidemic and mortality associated with orthomyxoviridae has been prevalent for almost 100 years yet the worst of them was 1918 pandemic which almost caused 20 million deaths across the globe of which 500,000 were in the United States. Sore throat, nonproductive cough and nasal discharge are some symptoms of the infection.
Ease in transmission of virus through inhalation, coughing and living in close proximity of infected person is major divers for the growth of orthomyxoviridae Infections treatment market. Moreover, inclination of tier 1 pharmaceutical companies for developing novel therapeutics as a cure to the infection will further compliment for the growth of the market. Geographically market for Orthomyxoviridae infections treatment market is dominated by the developed economic countries owing to government funding, implementation of stringent regulations to develop cost effective drugs/vaccines and intense research activities by scholars at universities and private research centers. Market for orthomyxoviridae infections treatment in emerging economic countries is growing at a rapid pace pertaining to rise in incidences of influenza and H1N1 infections in past. Some of the prominent pipelined drugs in the market encompass Q-LAIV Flu Vac, FluBlok, Cholecalciferol, GSK2340272A, Resfenol, Relenza, Vaxigrip, Preflucel, Oseltamivir and others. Such a distinct pipeline profile clearly depicts the intense research activities conducted by the players operating the market. Living in close proximity with poultry and animal husbandry are another prominent factor for increasing orthomyxoviridae infection rate especially in underdeveloped and developing parts of Asia Pacific and Middle East countries.
Some of the prominent companies operating and conducting research activities include Orthomyxoviridae Infections Therapeutics market include Baxter International Inc., AstraZeneca PLC, Vical Incorporated, Sanofi-Aventis, Generex Biotechnology Corporation, Novartis AG, AlphaVax, Inc., BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc., CureVac GmbH, PepTcell Limited, Hawaii Biotech, Inc. and others.
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