Japanese encephalitis is a mosquito-borne viral infection mostly found in the rural parts of the Asia. Encephalitis According to World Health Organization, intensification and expansion of irrigated rice production system in South-East Asia over past 20 years is primarily responsible for escalating the disease burden by Japanese encephalitis. The disease is caused by flavivirus and affects approximately 68,000 people annually in Asia.Astonishingly there is no permanent cure to the fetal disease and about 20-30% of patient usually dies within a short span of time from the onset of disease. Moreover approximately 50% of the survived patient population develops permanent brain damage. The disease can be broadly classified into three prominent categories: prodromal febrile stage followed by acute encephalitic stage marked by CNS involvement. The last stage is either marked by either recovery or persistence of symptoms with permanent neural damage.
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Apart from paddy fields Japanese encephalitis is also predominant in areas where pigs are here pigs are intensively raised and is passed to mosquitoes that bite the infected pigs. Major outbreaks of Japanese encephalitis occurs usually in every 5-10 years
Symptoms of the Japanese encephalitis include mild fever, prolonged headache, neck stiffness, coma, seizures, spastic paralysis, drowsiness, dilated pupil, disorientation. Additionally onset of mental issues such as hallucinations, tremors and confusion are other common symptoms predominant among patients suffering from Japanese encephalitis. According to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Inactivated Vero cell culture–derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine manufactured as IXIARO is the only licensed and available in the United States. In May 2013, FDA licensed IXIARO for use in children 2 months through 16 years of age. Vaccines such as SA14-14-2, IC51 marketed in Australia and New Zealand as JESPECT and ChimeriVax-JE marketed as IMOJEV are other very promising vaccines which are likely to escalate the overall market for Japanese encephalitis. Countries that had major epidemic in past include china, Republic of Korea, Japan, Taiwan and Thailand. Countries such as periodic Vietnam, Cambodia, Myanmar, India, Nepal, and Malaysia do have epidemics but instance are very rare as compared to the major epidemic countries. side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccine include: fever, muscle pain, light headedness, stomach upset, seizures and skin rashes.
Some of the major restraints to the growth of the market include high cost of the vaccines which is limiting the sales of the vaccines due to poverty and lack of appropriate healthcare infrastructure. An inexpensive live-attenuated vaccine is used in China, but is not available elsewhere. As preventive measure vaccination against Japanese encephalitis is compulsory for foreign travelers visiting to regions with high prevalence of infection. Though infection to travelers It is estimated that less than one in a million travelers develop Japanese encephalitis in any given year.
Geographically the market for Japanese encephalitis is majorly contributed by the Asia-pacific followed by the Rest of the World market pertaining to high prevalence rate and sales of vaccines. Lack of appropriate stock of preventive vaccine in the United States is major restraints to the growth of the market. Travelers are major contributors in spreading disease in European and America region. Key manufacturers for Japanese encephalitis market include Chengdu Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd, Wuhan Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd, Lanzhou Institute of Biological Products Co., Ltd, Intercell Biomedical Ltd., Novartis International AG, Sanofi Pasteur and others.
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