Hypersensitivity reaction is the over reactive immunological response towards antigens. In some cases, body’s own cells are miss-read as foreign cells and immune response is mounted against these cells. Hypersensitivity may lead to serious injuries, lifelong disorders and even death. There are two types of hypersensitivity reactions, namely, immediate hypersensitivity reaction and delayed hypersensitivity. Immediate reaction also called as allergic reactions involve antibodies while delayed type reactions involve T lymphocytes. Hypersensitivity reactions can be classified in to four main types (Gell and Coomb’s classification), follows:
- Type I- immediate hypersensitivity reaction involving IgE
- Type II- cytotoxic hypersensitivity reaction involving IgG and IgM
- Type III- immune-complex reaction involving circulation Ag-Ab (antigen-antibody) complex
- Type IV- delayed hypersensitivity reactions involving T cells.
Hypersensitivity may lead to various disorders such as asthma, erythroblastosis fetalis, goodpasture’s syndrome, Graves’ disease, myasthenia gravis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematosus among others. Diagnosis of allergies is done using various molecular and immunoassays, which deliver quick and accurate test results. ImmunoCAP test by Thermo Fisher Scientific is one the most widely used test for allergy testing.
Advent of multiplex technology has also revolution allergy testing, in which single sample can be tested for multiple analytes. The test is cost effective and also required very small amount of sample to conduct the test.
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Drug hypersensitivity is becoming a major concern, in which individuals suffer from allergy towards drugs, most common being insulin and beta lactums such as penicillin. Allergy is also a common disorder across the globe. According to World Allergy Organization, allergic rhinitis affects 10% to 30% of the global population while over 200 million individuals across the globe suffer from food allergy. The data further details that, more than 10% of the adverse drug reactions are unpredictable drug hypersensitivity reactions. The prevalence of lupus is higher in Europe and Australia as compared to North America. In North America, the disease is more prevalent among Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Due to this high prevalence across the globe, the demand for quick and effective treatment and diagnosis of hypersensitivity reactions is increasing.
As the clinical research advances, various drugs will be launched in the market offering better treatment for hypersensitivity. This will also add more products to the market and hence ensure continuous growth. Moreover as the drugs approach patent expiry, generic drugs are expected to hit the market, making treatment affordable to the developing and under developed countries; thus expanding geographical scope. The market is flooded with generic drugs for treatment of hypersensitivity reaction. Common drugs include astemizole, celiprolol, chlorpheniramine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, triamcinolone and various others. India being the home for generic drug manufacturers, the market is expected to boost as branded drugs lose their patents.
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GSK manufactured Benlysta (belimumab) is a B lymphocyte stimulator, received FDA approval in 2011 for treatment of lupus. Ibuprofen and aspirin are widely prescribed anti-inflammatory drugs for suppressing symptoms of lupus. Immunosuppressant such as CellCept (Mycophenolate mofetil) by Roche, Neoral (Cyclosporine) by Novartis, Imuran (Azathioprine) by GSK are commonly prescribed for lupus treatment. KALBITOR (ecallantide) by Dyax Corp is prescribed for acute hereditary angioedema (HAE). Other key players in the market include Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Admac Pharma Ltd., DWD Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Panacea Biotec Ltd, Dr Reddy Laboratories Ltd, Glenmark Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Cipla Limited, Glaxo Smith Kline Pharmaceuticals, Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
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