Blood carries oxygen which is required for a healthy body functioning. When the concentration of oxygen is reduced in the blood then an oxygen-sensing protein present in the kidney identifies the deficiency of oxygen gradient in the blood and then induces the EPO production, which then turns upon the erythroid cell line in the bone marrow to stimulate hematopoiesis and thus it response to the change in blood oxygen gradient. Endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein hematopoietic hormone, which is synthesized, in the renal tubules.
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EPO helps in controlling and regulating the mechanism of erythropoiesisin the bone marrow. Due to anemia and renal problem, the production of erythropoietin (EPO) istroubled, resulting into fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, pale skin and insomnia.For treating anemia,chemotherapy induced anemia, renal disorders and others erythropoietin stimulating drugs (EPO) are used. For development of synthetic form of erythropoietin drugs such as epoetin alfa, epoetin beta, darbepoetin alfa, epoetin delta, epoetin omega and others with the help of improved recombinant DNA technology.
Recombinant erythropoietin is an artificialformof natural erythropoietin. These are made by cloning the gene for erythropoietin. Among synthetic EPO’sepoetin alfa, epoetin beta, epoetin omega, epoetin delta and darbepoetin-alpha are used extensively. Epoetin delta is another recombinant EPO that is been used for treating patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Global Erythropoietin stimulating agent market are driven by increasing number of patients suffering from anemia, anemia induced due to cancer, end stage renal disease (ESRD) and HIV treatment. In June 1989,Epoetin alfa was the first drug for EPO, manufactured by Amgen Inc. U.S FDA approved itunder the trade name “Epogen”. The global market for erythropoietin drugs are expected to grow in near future as increased cases of cancer and renal problem haveregistered. With the expiration of Amgen’s patent for Epogen, it has helped the production of other biosimilars EPO drugs. Hence, availability of many biosimilar drugs has renderedlow-cost option to the patients, therefore particularly, in the developing regions the adoption of EPO drugs have increased.
Based on product type erythropoietin stimulating agent can divided as Epoetin-alfa, Epoetin-beta, epoetin omega, epoetin delta and darbepoetin-alpha. Application of erythropoietin stimulating agents are classified as anemia, cancer chemotherapy, kidney disorders (ESRD and dialysis), antiretroviral treatment (ART) and others (neural disease and wound healing),
Some of the major players in erythropoietin stimulating agent market are Amgen Inc., Biocon, Celltrion, Inc., Hospira Inc., Intas Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd., Roche, LG Life Sciences Ltd. and Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.
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