Peptides are short chain of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Usually they contain less than 50 amino acids. Natural cardiovascular peptides such as ANP and BNP are hormones of cardiac origin that play an important role in the regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis. Cardiovascular peptides are predominantly produced in heart, although many other tissues produced it but in amounts inadequate to induce any physiological effects. Advancement in biotechnology and pharmaceutical sciences has enable researchers to modify or mimic naturally occurring peptide for diverse therapeutic uses. One such example is Nesiritide, recombinant form of the 32 amino acid human B-type natriuretic peptide. Cardiovascular peptides are used in primarily to treat or avoid acute myocardial infarction, Coronary Ischemia, hypertension, Cardio metabolic Disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular diseases, and hematologic diseases.
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Increasing prevalence of cardiovascular diseases obesity, sedentary lifestyle, serious side effects associated with currently available cardiovascular products and high risk linked with surgical procedures are some major factors driving the cardiovascular peptides market growth. As per the World Health Organization (WHO) statistics on cardiovascular diseases, approximately 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular diseases in 2008, accounting for nearly 30% of all global deaths. The WHO further states that the number of global deaths by cardiovascular diseases is expected to reach 30 million by 2030. Concerted efforts in research and development by pharmaceutical companies and extensive research collaborations would help them gain core competencies in this market. Big pharmaceutical companies such as Eli Lilly & Company, Novo Nordisk, Novartis AG, and Bristol Myers Squibb (BMS) have invested huge money in research and development of cardiovascular peptides. However, high cost associated with development of cardiovascular peptides, strict regulatory policies and FDA approval procedure may impede growth of the cardiovascular peptides market to some extent. Furthermore, availability of alternate treatment options is one of the key challenges for global cardiovascular peptides market.
The cardiovascular peptides market has been analyzed on the basis of major cardiovascular diseases such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, hypertension, peripheral vascular diseases and hematologic Diseases. Many of the cardiovascular peptides are in clinical trials. Danegaptide, a novel dipeptide, invented by Zealand, is a potent and selective gap junction modifier. Currently this drug is in the Phase II Proof-of-Concept study to evaluate the efficacy and safety in patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Geographically, the global cardiovascular peptides market has been segmented into North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific and Rest of World (RoW). North America dominates the global cardiovascular peptides market owning to high prevalence rate of cardiovascular diseases, huge healthcare expenditure, insurance coverage and sophisticated diagnostic technologies for cardiac manifestations. According to the American Heart Association, 650,000 new cases of cardiac diseases are diagnosed every year in U.S. In Europe, cardiovascular diseases are most prevalent in Central and Eastern Europe. As per European Society of Cardiology, in 2012, cardiovascular diseases accounted for 4 million deaths in Europe, nearly 47% of all deaths. In Asia-Pacific region, particularly India and China are the fastest growing markets for cardiovascular peptide therapeutics owning to large population base and increasing elderly population.
Some of the major players in cardiovascular peptides market include Eli Lilly & Company, Novo Nordisk, Novartis AG, AstraZeneca, and plc, Bristol Myers Squibb, GlaxoSmithKline, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Zealand Pharma, Diartis Pharmaceuticals, American Peptide Company, Inc., Capstone Therapeutics and Nile Therapeutics, Inc.