Salmonella, a gram-negative facultative rod-shaped bacterium, is found in human and animal intestines. Most people get infected with salmonella by eating contaminated food such as raw meat, infected poultry and seafood, raw eggs, and contaminated fruits and vegetables. Salmonella infection causes diseases and conditions such as typhoid, paratyphoid, and food poisoning. Major symptoms of salmonella infection include diarrhea, fever, dehydration, and abdominal cramps that usually occur within 8 to 72 hours after ingesting contaminated food. Most people recover without treatment.
However, sometimes diarrhea and dehydration may become severe and the patient may need medical attention. Elderly people, infants, and people who have a weak immune system due to disease such as AIDS, sickle cell disease, malaria, and corticosteroids get affected more easily by salmonella infection. The salmonella testing procedure includes detection and isolation, and confirmation and identification of the bacteria. In the detection and isolation stage, animal feces and water sources are tested for the bacteria. Moreover, large number of food ingredients and food products are routinely tested by the food industry, especially meat products, eggs, and dairy products for the detection of salmonella in these items.
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