Normal body temperature varies by a person’s age, activity, and the time of day at which it is being measured. Fahrenheit, Kelvin, and Celsius are three temperature measurement units used to measure patient body temperature. The normal average body temperature in humans is considered to be 98.6 degree Fahrenheit. Body temperature represents the balance between heat production and heat loss. Persons whose body temperature rises to 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit are considered ill.
Temperature measurement through thermometers helps in the diagnosis of illness in humans. Thermometer is a temperature measurement instrument sealed in a glass tube. Electronic thermometers are now commonly used as temperature measurement devices. Patient warming and cooling are important factors to be considered in patient temperature management. Normal body temperature can be affected by intrinsic and extrinsic (environmental) factors. Sites such as oral cavity, axilla, temporal artery, external auditory canal, and rectum are suitable for noninvasive estimation of actual body temperature. Cooling and warming blankets and gel pads or ice packs are some of the traditional patient temperature management methods used in burn centers, emergency departments, and surgical suites. Surface warming and surface cooling systems are two common methods used for the management of patient body temperature. The surface warming system consists of connective and conductive warming systems. Patient cooling systems include surface cooling systems, intravascular cooling systems, and patient cooling accessories. Nursing staff, paramedical staff, surgeons, and anesthesiologists are some of the common users for temperature management equipment.
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