Cardiac surgery is performed by heart surgeons due to complications in the heart or heart diseases like correct congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, ischemic heart disease. Typically, neurological damage is the major concerned while doing the cardiac surgery. Patients who are at risk, stroke is higher and occurs generally 2-3% of people having cardiac surgery. Open heart surgery is performed in the internal structure of the heart when the patient’s heart is open. There are different types of heart surgeries like endoscopic surgery; where a surgeon uses a camera and a specific endoscopic tools to complete the surgery, open heart surgery – in which the heart is stopped temporarily and a machine pump the blood and oxygen for a patient.
Another form of heart surgery which is gaining popularity is robot assisted heart surgery. It is a machine which performs surgery by the control of heart surgeons. The biggest advantage is the size of the incision made in the patient. Also, there is pediatric heart surgery – surgery for children and modern beating heart surgery which is an off-pump coronary artery bypass done by using a technique called endoscopic vessel harvesting (EVH).
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