Epigenetic procedure involves stable changes in genome, which are reversible in gene expression. These changes can be transferred generation to generation, but contains no permanent changes in DNA. The epigenetically controlled genes are repressed or activated with no genotypic change in DNA. Epigenetic changes occur phenotypically but will have no genotypic change in the gene. This changes can occur naturally but can also be initiated by the environment changes, aging, lifestyle and some disease conditions. The Epigenetic procedures end up having both positive as well as damaging results. Positive expression results in differentiation of cells like skin cells, liver cells, pancreatic cells and lung cells etc. and the damaging expression of epigenetic changes can leads to formation of different cancer cells.
The epigenetic process includes phosphorylation, methylation, sumolyation, acetylation and ubiquitylation etc. of DNA as well as histones resulting in changes in Phenotypes. These changes are modified with environmental conditions. Epigenetic market is now an emerging field. There are various diagnostic tests available now that detect epigenetic changes. There are some FDA approved epigenetic drugs. Other than many diagnostic companies, many biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical companies are also very active in the field of epigenetic. The worldwide ongoing research in finding the role of epigenetic in different disease and disorders is fueling the epigenetic market. Within the diagnostic segment of the epigenetic, most of the focus has been on the detection of DNA methylation. Most of the activity and interest of the companies is focused on the therapeutic segment of the epigenetic field.
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