Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high blood sugar level. It is caused by the improper functioning of the pancreas which secretes insulin. Diabetes is also known as diabetes mellitus. High blood sugar leads to increased thirst and hunger, and frequent urination. Lack of treatment for diabetes causes several complications such as diabetes ketoacidosis, heart disease, stroke, and kidney failures. Insulin infusion therapy is used to treat diabetes. There are three types of diabetes including type1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes, is characterized by low production of insulin by the body. Some of the conditions which lead to type 1 diabetes are addisons disease, celiac disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and autoimmune thyroid disease. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, predominant in overweight and obese people. Pancreatectomy, chronic pancreatitis, and cystic fibrosis are some of the conditions which lead to Type2 diabetes. Diabetes is treated through diabetes drugs such as insulin, metformin, and sulphonylureas.
Diabetes drugs help in preventing complications and controlling blood glucose level in the blood. Some of the drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes are metformin, actos, avandia, lantus subcutaneous, and invokana. All drugs are administered orally except insulin, exenatide, liraglutide, and pramlintide. Insulin is delivered through insulin delivery devices including infusion pump, intravenous sets, insulin syringe, insulin pen, and jet injectors. Long acting, intermediate acting, short acting, and rapid acting are some of the types of insulin used to treat diabetes.
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