Lymphobalstic lymphoma is also known as non-hodgkin lymphoma a type of cancer that primarily affects lymphatic system. The lymphatic system comprises organs such as the thymus, bone marrow, spleen, and the lymph nodes (or lymph glands). Lymph nodes are connected by a network of tubes called lymphatic vessels that contain lymph fluid and lymphatic tissue is also found in other organs such as skin, lungs and stomach. Prevalence of lymphoblastic lymphoma is high in teenagers and children compared to adults. According to National Cancer Institute (NCI), lymphoblastic lymphoma is the third most common childhood malignancy, and lymphoblastic lymphoma accounts for approximately 7% of cancers in children younger than 20 years. In the United States, in 2013 about 800 new cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma are diagnosed each year.
Lymphoblastic lymphoma is an aggressive lymphoma. This means that it is fast-growing and needs treatment straight away with chemotherapy. The primary symptoms observed in lymphoblastic lymphoma are enlarged lymph nodes, enlarged spleen, thrombocytopenia, fatigue, dyspnea and others. The types of lymphoblastic lymphoma are overactive bladder syndrome, chlamydia, cervical cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), pelvic inflammatory diseases and others.
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The lymphoblastic lymphoma is diagnosed by removing enlarged lymph nodes and examining with blood tests, x-rays and scans, lumbar puncture and bone marrow. The first line of treatment for lymphoblastic lymphoma consists of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, stem cell support and steroid therapy. Chemotherapy is the main treatment for lymphoblastic lymphoma usually treated more intensively than other types of lymphomas. The patients are primarily referred to a specialist centre for treatment and it is similar to the treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The three types of chemotherapies are used against lymphoblastic lymphoma market such as induction chemotherapy, consolidation therapy and continuing therapy. The potential complications of lymphoblastic lymphoma include opportunistic infections, neutropenic fever (admit the patient), bleeding, and tumor lysis syndrome.
North America was observed to be the largest market for lymphoblastic lymphoma treatment and the major reasons behind this is the increasing prevalence of genetic diseases and advanced diagnostic facilities. In the U.S., the incidence of lymphoblastic lymphoma is roughly 3000-3500 or approximately 1 in 50,000 in 2012. While currently it has peak the incident rate of 2–5 years old, decreasing in incidence with increasing age before increasing again at around 50 years old. Lymphoblastic lymphoma is slightly more common in males than females and an increased incidence in people with a family history of autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune thyroid diseases (namely Graves’ disease or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis). Asia-Pacific were observed to be the most potential market as the developing healthcare facilities and acceptance of modern technology are enhancing the diagnostics of disease where the detection of lymphoblastic lymphoma is easily observed. The high investments were observed in the point of care sector of healthcare in the emerging markets such as India, China, Brazil, Mexico and others that are driving the market growth in these regions.
Some of the key players in this market are Novartis AG, Pfizer Inc., Sanofi SA, Jazz Pharmaceuticals plc, Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, AstraZeneca PLC, Eisai Inc., Amgen Inc. and BioCryst Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Key players involved in the research and development are National Cancer Institute, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center , St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Inc., Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Hospitals and others.