Heart block is a disease of electrical system of the heart that controls the rate and rhythm of the heart. A heart block occurs if there is slowed and disturbed electrical signals while travelling to heart. People have inherited congenital heart blocks as well as acquired heart blocks that develop after birth. Based on the working of electric signal, heart block is of two type’s namely partial heart block and complete heart block. In partial heart block, the electrical signals are blocked partially i.e., their arrival to the heart is delayed. In complete heart block, signals transmission gets blocked completely.
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Heart blocks are also classified as sinoatrial node (SA node) nodal block, atrioventricular node (AV node) nodal block and infra-Hisian blocks. SA node block is not hazardous since, the alternate of SA node i.e., AV will function in place of SA node and would start beating at higher rate to compensate the blood flow. As compared to SA node, AV node block is serious a condition as the functionality of AV node is not taken by other heart components. Block of distal conduction system of heart is known as infra-Hisian block.
Heart blocks can also be segmented as first degree heart block, second degree heart block and third degree heart block. In first-degree heart block, electrical signals are slowed as they move from atria (upper chamber of heart) to ventricles (lower chamber of heart). Usually, first-degree heart block does not cause any symptoms and hence do not require treatment. In second degree heart block, electrical signals are slowed in large degree between atria and ventricles. Sometimes, several signals don’t reach ventricles. If electrical signals do not reach ventricles, they won’t contract and pump blood to the lungs along with the rest of body. Second degree heart blocks are of two types: Mobitz type I and Mobitz type II. In third degree heart block, none of the electrical signals reach to ventricles resulting in complete heart block.
Treatment of heart block depends upon the type of heart block a patient is suffering from. In first-degree heart block, usually no treatment is required. In second degree heart block, cardiologist place pacemakers over the skin of abdomen or chest. Pacemaker is also suggested to the patients suffering from third degree heart block. Pacemaker is a device that utilizes electrical signals to initiate heart beat at standard rate.
The market for heart block treatment is poised to grow at a significant CAGR during 2014 to 2020. This is due to increasing number of patients suffering from one or other heart block. In addition, age also play a crucial role for developing heart block. Older the people higher the risk for acquiring heart stroke. Hence, aging population will substantially propel the growth of heart block treatment market. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that in 2010, around 524 million people were old and has projected that nearly 2 billion people belong to geriatric population by 2050. Similarly, rising incidences of hypothyroidism will further accentuate the growth of heart block treatments market. This is due to the fact that people with hypothyroidism easily acquire heart blocks.