Synthetic drugs are produced in a laboratory employing various chemical reactions. The chemical structure of these synthetic drugs match naturally occurring drugs and they are designed in such as way as to enhance their effects as compared to naturally occurring drugs, or to prevent undesired side effects. Many synthetic compounds without an alternative natural source are classified by the chemical structure of the parent synthetic compound. Pharmacological activity within a group of common sore structure may vary widely and produce different effects. The mechanism of action of anticholinergic drugs involves blocking of acetylcholine, nicotine, or muscarinic receptors. Distribution of the muscarinic receptors is known to be in the central nervous system (CNS), cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and the salivary glands. Nicotinic receptors are present in the autonomic ganglia and on striated muscle. Antispasmodic agents inhibit similar mechanism of action to anticholinergics. They act by blocking the parasympathetic nerve impulses leading to reduced smooth muscle spasms in the bladder and the gastrointestinal tract.
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The anticholinergics and antispasmodics in clinical use include natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic compounds that demonstrate a multitude of actions on smooth muscle cells and the parasympathetic nervous system. They are used to treat spasms or conditions with disturbances in the bladder or gastrointestinal motility. They are administered to treat functional gastrointestinal disorders. The global synthetic antispasmodic and anticholinergic drugs market has been segmented based on the drug class. This includes synthetic anticholinergics, as esters with tertiary amino group (oxyphencyclimine, camylofin, mebeverine, trimebutine, rociverine, dicycloverine, others), synthetic anticholinergics, as quaternary ammonium compounds (benzilone, glycopyrronium, oxyphenonium, penthienate, propantheline, carbachol, bevonium, poldine, diphemanil, mepenzolate and others), synthetic antispasmodic, as amides with tertiary amines (dimethylaminopropionylphenothiazine, nicofetamide, tiropramide), synthetic anticholinegic agents in combination with psycholeptics (isopropamide with psycholeptics, clidinium with psycholeptics and others), synthetic antispasmodic agents in combination with analgesics (tropenzilone with analgesics, bevonium with analgesics and others), combination of antispasmodics, psycholeptics and analgesics and synthetic antispasmodic agents with others drugs.
The bulky ammonium side chain in the synthetic quaternary ammonium derivatives makes these derivatives less likely to cross membranes, such as the blood brain barrier, and thus less likely to have central nervous system effects. Commercial production of synthetic drugs is carried out by drug manufacturers for valid medical purposes, however may lead to diversion from legal channels across the globe worldwide. Laboratory control knowledge, chemistry background and an educated understanding of the process is generally required for successful and safe synthesis of the drugs.
Antimuscarinic antispasmodic agents can be divided into atropine and related belladonna alkaloids, and the synthetic antimuscarinics (tertiary amine and quaternary ammonium compounds). In gastroenterology these agents are used in the relief of muscle spasm: anticholinergics have a dramatic effect on smooth muscle spasm when administered IV, but orally the effect is often disappointing; and for suppression of gastric acid secretion, where the high doses needed are often associated with considerable side-effects. More selective gastric acid antisecretory agents are preferable and have largely superseded agents formerly used. In the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome, often a therapeutic dilemma, there is some evidence that a high fibre maintenance diet combined with short- term antispasmodics may be beneficial.
Some of the players contributing to the global synthetic antispasmodics and anticholinergics market include Shire U.S, Khandelwal Laboratories Pvt Ltd., Hospira, Inc., Dr. Reddys Laboratories Ltd., Watson Laboratories, Inc., Ranbaxy, Inc. and CorePharma, Inc.